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Voting right/ crime act

1. When were African-Americans no longer disqualified from voting because of race? How was this accomplished?

2. What was the purpose of the voting Rights Act of 1􏰃65? Why was this legislation necessary?

3. What does (a) Section 2 and (b) Section 5, of the voting Rights Act provide? Why was Section 4 of that Act essential for the functioning of Section 5?

4. Summarize the reasoning of the Shelby County (a) majority opinion, and
(b) the dissent
5. How did the decision in Shelby County v. Holder affect (a) Section 2 and (b) Section 5 of the voting Rights Act?

6. Why is case-by-case litigation of voting rights violations an ineffective way to prevent voting discrimination?

7. Early cases in the U.S. Supreme Court involving the Native American tribes were concerned with whether the states or the federal government had power over the tribes.
(a) How was this question decided?
(b) What political considerations were relevant to the decision?
8. The U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Native American Tribes were “domestic dependent nations.”
(a) Did this give the tribes the rights of a foreign sovereign nation?
(b) What relationship was created between these “nations” and the U.S. government?

9. (a) How did the Marshall Court address the ownership of land by Native Americans?
(b) How is this doctrine related to the idea of federal “guardianship” over Native Americans?
10. (a) What was the “Major Crimes Act”?
(b) What underlying principle did this legislation reflect in regard to the view of Congress regarding tribal authority?
(c) What impact did this legislation have on tribal authority?
11. (a) How has the relationship between the Native tribes, Congress and the Courts changed in the modern era?
(b) In 2020 the Supreme Court, in McGirt v. Oklahoma, examined the current status of treaties made with native tribes establishing reservation lands. Why is this decision significant in regard to the application of the Major Crimes Act?

12. Review the Dred Scott decision. Compare (a) the evolution of citizenship status of African Americans with that of Native Americans, and (b) the effort to thwart each of these groups from exercising the right to vote ?