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Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria—most often Escherichia coli. However, certain viruses, fungi, and parasites can also lead to infection. The infection can affect the lower and upper urinary tract, including the urethra, prostate (in males), bladder, ureter, and kidney. Due to the progression of the disease and human anatomy, symptoms present differently among the sexes as well as among age groups. It is important to understand how these factors, as well as others, impact the pathophysiology of UTIs. Advanced practice nurses must have this foundation in order to properly diagnose patients.
To prepare:
Review Chapter 29 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections. Consider the similarities and differences between the two types of infections.
Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.
Please address the following in my assignment:
A description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections.
Similarities and differences of lower and upper urinary tract infections.
Then explain how the factors you selected (Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior.) might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.
Summary with Conclusion
REMINDERS:
1) At least 2 pages (addressing the 4 questions above excluding the title page and reference page).
2) Kindly follow APA format for the citation and references! References should be 5 years old between the period of 2011 and 2016. Please utilize the references at least three below as much as possible and the rest from yours.
3) Make headings for each question.
References:

Readings

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Chapter 28, “Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems”

This chapter introduces the structure and function of the renal and urologic systems. It covers renal blood flow, kidney function, and tests for renal and bladder function.
Chapter 29, “Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function”

This chapter examines alterations of the renal and urinary tract function, including urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease. It focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and evaluation and treatment of those renal and urinary tract alterations.
Chapter 30, “Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children”

This chapter presents alterations of renal and urinary tract function that are common in children. These alterations include structural abnormalities, bladder disorders, nephroblastoma, and urinary incontinence.
McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Chapter 16, “Renal Disease”

This chapter explores the structure and function of the kidney for preparation of examining renal diseases. It then examines renal diseases such as acute kidney injury and chronic renal failure.
Optional Resources

National Kidney Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.kidney.org/index.cfm
Please proceed to the Discussion.

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