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Topic: The United States is the only country in history to have used nuclear bombs against an enemy in wartime. Was American use of nuclear bombs justified? Why or why not?

Order Description
Research essay (1500 words)
o ·? Make sure you have read all of your primary and secondary sources carefully.
o ·? Write your essay, making sure you incorporate any feedback you received on your proposal. Copy and paste the feedback you received on your proposed to the first page of your research essay. The marker of your research essay will be consulting the earlier feedback you received on your proposal, and checking to see whether you addressed any critical comments and/or suggestions from your proposal.
o ·? Make sure you clearly state an argument in your essay. Advance and support your argument with evidence and analysis from your sources throughout your essay.
o ·? Your essay must include complete citations (either footnotes or endnotes) of every source you used. You are not required to include a bibliography at the end of your paper if you already have complete footnotes or endnotes. Refer to the “citations” section of this unit outline (pages 11-12) for information on citation formats and information on when to cite sources.
o ·? Submit your essay by Monday, 9 May Friday, at 9am via Blackboard. Please submit your journal in Microsoft Word.
• ·? You must read all primary and secondary sources for each question. Those sources without a web address can be found electronically through the Sydney University catalogue; consult a librarian if you require assistance with locating sources through the catalogue.
• ·? You are permitted to use additional sources, and those sources must all be properly cited. Please note that you are not, however, required to find additional sources.
• ·? Clearly state an argument near the beginning of your essay. For the remainder of your essay, support that argument with the primary and secondary sources listed under your selected question.

Essay question
Primary sources
o ·? “A Petition to the President of the United States,” signed by Leo Szilard et al. (1945),
o ·? Harry Truman, “Announcing the Bombing of Hiroshima” (1945), resources/truman-hiroshima/
o ·? “In Pictures: Hiroshima, the First Atomic Bomb,” British Broadcasting Corporation,
o ·? Rudolph A. Winnacker, “The Debate About Hiroshima,” Military Affairs 11.1 (Spring 1947): 25-30. Electronic access through library catalogue.
Page 18
Secondary sources
o ·? “Decision to Drop the Bomb – 1945,” Atomic Heritage Foundation,
o ·? Michael S. Henry, “Where Do We Stand on the A-Bomb?” OAH Magazine of History 10.3 (Spring 1996): 51-52. Electronic access through library catalogue.
o ·? Barton J. Bernstein, “Truman and the A-Bomb: Targeting Noncombatants, Using the Bomb, and His Defending the ‘Decision,’” Journal of Military History 62.3 (July 1998): 547-570. Electronic access through library catalogue.
Have questions about how to cite sources for your written work in this unit? Refer to this guide below:
When to cite:
o ·? When you use direct quotes.
o ·? When you paraphrase material from a source.
o ·? When you refer to ideas/arguments that originate from a source other
than yourself. (This may include material presented in lectures and
o ·? When in doubt, cite.
Citation format
You may use any citation format as long as you use it consistently (i.e. you pick one format and stick with it throughout your essay). The preferred format for many history publications, however, is “Chicago Style.”
According to Chicago Style, a single-authored book should be cited like this in a footnote or endnote:
Author first name, middle initial if applicable, and last name [comma] book title italicised or underlined [begin parenthesis with publisher city, then a semicolon, then the publishing company’s name, then the year of publication, end parenthesis] [comma] page(s) cited.
For example:
Marion Nestle, Food Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 30.
A scholarly article should be cited like this in a footnote or endnote:
Author first name, middle initial if applicable, and last name [comma] article title in quotations [comma] journal name italicised or underlined [no comma] issue volume [begin parenthesis with month/season of publication if applicable, and year of publication, end parenthesis], semicolon, page(s) cited.
Daniel T. Rodgers, “In Search of Progressivism,” American Historical Review 10.4 (December 1982): 113-132.

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