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The women suffrage movement and the ninetenth amendment

Based on your review of primary and secondary sources, develop a research question related to the historical event selected. In other words, what would you like to know more about?

Identify an audience that would be interested in your historical event and research question. For example who would benefit most from hearing your message?

Describe how and why you can tailor your message to your audience, providing specific examples. For example will your audience understand historical terminology and principles associated with your event or will you need to explain these?

How will you communicate effectively with your audience?

Current state of Terrorism and Violence

Southeast Asia is a home to over six hundred million people, which makes about 15% of global population. The region faced detrimental terrorism threats over the years. In particular, the rise of Islamic State poses new challenges for the Southeast Asian leadership and the international policies for the region. Southeast Asia comprises of various dynamic economies and Muslim majority. Though the region is tolerant of other religious affiliations, it is evident that Southeast Asia is home to different violent separatist organizations and Islamist radical groups, which highly contribute to rampant instances of violence for over three decades. Apparently, some Southeast Asian governments such as Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia have strengthened counter-terror strategies since 2014. Their main aim involved strengthening policy and border control initiatives. Despite of these efforts, it is evident that violent attacks are still on the rise.

The terror threats in Southeast Asia associate with the consistent rise of Islamic State, whose members conduct extensive recruitment of new members in Indonesia and Malaysia. Similarly, the South Asian borders are porous and this exacerbates border threats. Clearly, border control emerges as one of the strategies for countering terrorism in the region.  The governments also need to develop better coordination and sharing of intelligence supported by the United States.

Indonesia is Southeast Asia’s densely populated nation with the largest Muslim-majority state. The country shows repeated history of dealing with violent militancy since the beginning of the 19th Century. Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda are the two primary groups associated with terrorism in Indonesia. These organized splinter groups conduct recruitment procedures in prisons. The Indonesian prisons act as centers for recruitment despite the intense supervision of radical inmates.

Cultural Identity: Meaning and Definition

Cultural identity is a form of identification or association to a certain group based on various factors such as cultural categories, ethnicity, religion, gender, race and nationality. Besides, it is maintained through a procedure of collective sharing of knowledge in customs, norms, language, and heritage. The notion of self is important in understanding the concept of identity. ‘Self’ involves a complex set of beliefs regarding one’s attributes as well as memories and recalling of certain memories and beliefs. The concept of “self” also influences individual attitude towards others and the world. Besides, an understanding of personal, interpersonal, and collective levels of self-identity results in development of a sense of belonging. Identity also acts as a guide to an individual on the groups he/she is likely to associate. Unfortunately, people with negative self-esteem are likely to feel rejected in case he/she joins a group which they feel inadequate.  Subsequently, the nature of identity involves an examination of one’s aspects of face. The construction of facial expressions is often based on the judgment of other people. Therefore, identity is an aspect that involves one’s decision on how he/she would like to portray themselves to the world.

According to social identity theory, identity is a function of one’s social group. Human beings are social in nature and they develop self-identity through an establishment of aspects through social interactions and the influence of others. When seeking to identify with a certain group, an individual categorizes and decide on the appropriate characteristics associated with a certain group of people. After settling on a group of choice, one seeks self-enhancement, which assumes that people would like to seek the positive aspects related to a certain group. The positive attributes of self-enhancement is that it encourages a sense of comparison of other groups.

Cultural Identity in South East Asia

Culture is the way of life of people from a certain community. It involves their norms, mores, values, and beliefs. The different aspects of society resonate around culture and the sense of belonging of the people. Southeast Asia remains as the fastest growing economies owing to the fact that most of the governments strive to ensure that they maintain a sense of belonging to one another. Alike, they offer citizens an adequate sense of security. On the contrary, along with the sense of prosperity portrayed in Southeast Asia, it is clear that many communities in the region face rampant outbreaks of religious violence. This means that Islam as a religious group feels superior and this causes them to perform extreme acts that are detrimental to peoples’ lives.

Additionally, the region is heterogeneous since it comprises of Indian, Buddhist, And Islam factors that shape the characteristic features of cultural and religious identity in the region. Historical and cultural influences mingle as Islam and Catholicism are some of the identities that define the people from the Southeast Asia.  Islam is the most dominant religion in Southeast Asia. Consequently, the religious affiliation influences the cultural aspect of the region as most people tend to follow Islamic beliefs and norms. However, the culture of religious extremism has had a significant influence on the conflicts that often occur in this region. Thus, Islam religion highly impacts the way of life of the Southeast Asians.

Cultural Identity and Terrorism in South East Asia

Recent research shows that the colonial era had a significant influence on cultural and political associations across and within Southeast Asia. Specifically, commercial interactions significantly impacted much of the interactions among people of this region. Culture shapes the characteristics of the people of Southeast Asia. Initially, people from this area were seen as passive recipients, but active in borrowing and modifying foreign culture. Across this region, religion emerges as an essential component of identity of each individual. Historically, colonialism resulted in widespread of language and culture. However, religious identities show a sense of natural strength. Contrarily, there are some social and political groups that have manipulated religious people in order to manipulate support. As a result, there has been a subsequent rise in religious violence and nationalism that caused hostility against religious minorities. Specifically, the Islamic State poses a lot of danger to the people, and this causes insecurity, loss of life, and increased government restrictions. The existing hostilities cause tension and unrest, which finally hampers economic and social development.

The factors that increase terror activities in Southeast Asia include stereotypes of majoritarianism, where the majority of the religion uses its position to create hostility in the community. The other factor is that there is no common ground to create a common identity. Religious nationalists in Southeast Asia focus on one aspect of identifying an individual to a certain religious group and highlights differences and similarities. The Muslims believe that they are a majority group and they take religious extremism to a level of hurting people. It is prudent that the Southeast Asian government addresses the problem of propaganda and creates common identities for all religious groups.