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The West and the World: how interactions with the non-European world MOST changed Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

The West and the World: how interactions with the non-European world MOST changed Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

1. Explain in 250 words or less how interactions with the non-European world MOST changed Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
2. Explain in 250 words or less what was new about the European state system created by the Congress of Vienna and how it was a response to Napoleon’s Empire.
3. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice was a short story written by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; Frankenstein was a long novel by Mary Shelley. One could say they offer similar parables (a story with a moral). Explain the parable in 250 words or less, and then use another 250 words to explain how the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, and Napoleon might have helped to make these especially popular stories (they were!).
4. If nineteenth-century Europe creates some of the most powerful states (nation-states and empires) the world had ever seen, and if those were able to conquer vast portions of the world in new ways, explain in 250 words why Orwell has to shoot the elephant. After all, he is a colonial official, can’t he do whatever he wants?
5. In 250 words or less, explain what were the top three best things about the Belle Époque (i.e. what made it a beautiful era), and then explain the three worst things about it. So, was it beautiful or not?
6. The Communist Manifesto was written at the time of the 1848 revolutions, but it was not widely read until decades later. Explain in 250 words or less what Marx and Engels say about family and how that captures problems at the root of modern society.
7. In 250 words or less, explain what we mean by ‘total war’. What was different about industrialized warfare on a massive scale? I don’t just mean the death rates. What did it require of societies?
8. In 250 words or less explain what is different about modern society in the Soviet Union than in other European states. Then, in another 250 words explain what, according to Valentine Kataev, was the relationship of the Soviet Union’s leadership to history, progress, and time? What made the wheel of history move so fast in the USSR under Stalin; and what, ultimately, were its chief consequences?

Age Development, also called the Age of Investigation and also the Wonderful Navigations, was a time period in European record through the early on 15th century to the earlier 17th century. During this period, Europeans involved in rigorous exploration and earlier colonization of numerous components around the world, creating direct experience of Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania. Historians often reference the Age of Development to imply the pioneering time of the Portuguese and Spanish very long-distance maritime travels searching for alternative buy and sell ways for the Indies. The contact between the “Old World” of Europe as well as the so-called “New World” of the Americas created exactly what is referred to as Columbian Trade: the broad exchange of vegetation, wildlife, meals, communicable diseases, folks (including slaves), and culture between the Eastern and European hemispheres.

While Christopher Columbus continues to be hailed in U . S . background for “discovering” America in 1492, there exists developing archaeological proof go across-continental travel and trade for years and years ahead of Columbus’ travels. In addition to the travel and arrangement from the Vikings in America over 500 yrs before Columbus, numerous concepts happen to be recommended of considerable business and go to the Americas dating back to many thousands of years by Africa, the center Eastern, To the south Asian countries, Eastern Parts of asia, and Polynesia. While significant amounts of Traditional western history facilities on Europeans as being the earliest and most advanced explorers around the globe, developing facts indicates considerable transoceanic traveling was well underway prior to the European Age of Finding.

The Vikings The Vikings are regarded as the first European explorers to reach you in Canada And America, possessing landed in doing what is currently Newfoundland, a existing region of Canada, more than 500 many years before Columbus. Historical and archaeological evidence informs us a Norse nest in Greenland was established within the later 10th century and lasted before the middle-15th century. The continues to be of a Norse resolution at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada, are out dated to throughout the season 1000. Continental North American settlements were actually small, and failed to turn into long lasting colonies. While voyages, to gather timber as an example, will probably have took place for a while, there is not any proof of long lasting Norse settlements on mainland North America.

Leif Erikson was an Icelandic explorer considered by some since the initially European apart from the Vikings on Greenland, to property in America. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, Leif was the son of Erik the Red-colored, who has been the founding father of the initial Norse resolution in Greenland. Leif recognized a Norse pay out at Vinland, tentatively determined with the Norse L’Anse aux Meadows about the north idea of Newfoundland in modern day-day time Canada. Later archaeological facts suggests that Vinland seemed to be the region throughout the Gulf of Saint. Lawrence and that the L’Anse aux Meadows internet site was a cruise ship repair station.

The nest in Greenland started to fall from the 14th century, in fact it is possible how the settlements were defunct from the late 15th century. Many hypotheses happen to be innovative to spell out the decrease, such as the Little Ice-cubes Age group, disunity throughout the Viking society due to introduction of a single Christian empire in Norway, and several destructive bouts of pandemic condition in European countries. Explorations of a new territory for the western would be a famous tale in the scary Viking pirates, and nearly 500 many years would complete before another European saw the American country. The slip from the Roman Business (476 CE) and the start of the European Renaissance inside the late 14th century roughly bookend the period referred to as Center Age groups. With out a dominant centralized potential or overarching ethnic centre, Europe knowledgeable political, sociable, and military discord during this time. This integrated the Crusades against the Muslims of the late 11th through later 13th centuries and also the Black color Passing away in the 1340s.

The Christian church stayed intact, nevertheless, and surfaced through the period as being a single and powerful school. A higher childbirth amount following the Dark Loss of life, in addition to bountiful harvests, meant that the population increased in the after that century. By 1450, a newly rejuvenated European culture was on the brink of tremendous transform. Greater servings of european Europe experienced come to be knowledgeable about the products in the East as a result of the Crusades. A lively trade subsequently produced along many different paths recognized collectively because the Silk Street, to offer the need for these kinds of products. Brigands and greedy middlemen created the vacation along this course costly and risky, and through 1492, Europe—recovered through the Black color Passing away and trying to find new products and new wealth—was nervous to improve trade and telecommunications with the remainder of the community. The lure of profit pushed explorers to seek new business paths on the Spice Island destinations and eliminate Muslim middlemen.

The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Business in 1453 was actually a critical cause of European research, as business during the entire Ottoman Kingdom was hard and difficult to rely on. Industry for luxuries including seasoning and silk inspired European explorers to get new routes to Asia. Portugal, beneath the authority of Prince Henry the Navigator, made an effort to send out ships round the region of Africa, and Ruler Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain employed Christopher Columbus to identify a route to the East by moving western. As robust followers in the Catholic cathedral, they sought-after to create Christianity on the Eastern side and any newly identified lands, and hoped to discover causes of wealth.

Christopher Columbus It was actually against this backdrop that Christopher Columbus, a Castilian navigator and admiral, submitted his strategies for cruising worldwide to Asia. After several methods to the Italian, English, and Portuguese monarchies, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain finally chosen to give Columbus a chance, inspite of the advice of the experts. Master Ferdinand considered Columbus may find something that could offer the Spanish the chance to compete with their next door neighbor and rival Portugal.

Columbus set out on his very first of four voyages on August 3, 1492. Cycling the trade wind westward all over the Atlantic Seas with all the Nina, the Pinta, along with the Santa Maria, Columbus landed on an tropical island he called San Salvador, from the current-day time Bahamas, five days after embarking from Spain. Within this voyage, Columbus also looked into the northeast coast of Cuba and the north coast of Hispaniola, exactly where he set up the pay out of La Navidad.

Upon his come back to Spain, information of the uncovered areas spread throughout The european union. Columbus created three much more voyages on the New World between 1493 and 1504. Columbus’ second voyage landed from the Caribbean, on an tropical island he named Dominica, and ongoing northward from the Lesser and Greater Antilles. On his next voyage, Columbus landed around the Portuguese Porto Santo Island before carrying on with through to Madeira the Canary Small islands and Cape Verde, away from the shoreline of West Africa Trinidad, from the coast of current-day time Venezuela and mainland South America. Columbus’s 4th and closing voyage over the Atlantic had taken him throughout Main The united states, such as Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

These three subsequent voyages have been intended to investigate and exploit the riches and sources in the indigenous people in the Americas. Columbus have been granted expert from the Spanish monarchy to assert land for Spain, start a arrangement, buy and sell for useful products or precious metal, and explore. He had also been produced governor of the areas which he discovered and the man proved to be a savage and challenging governor. Columbus enslaved and stole from your indigenous folks, at some point frightening to reduce from the fingers of the person who failed to provide him with precious metal. His brutal reign would foreshadow the introduction of the Conquistadors—Spanish warriors would you plunder and destroy the larger and rich Aztec, Incan, and Mayan cultures.