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The Tropical Pacific project

Cobb et al., 2013
1. What gap in the research is this paper looking to fill?
2. What are fossil corals? How can they help us understand ENSO variability? How are they limited?
3. How can we expect the δ18O to respond in El Niño conditions in the Northern Line Islands? La Niña?
4. What do they use as a baseline for the fossil corals?
5. How does this paper find the models representation of ENSO variance?

Cai et al., 2015
1. How is the tropical Pacific projected to change due to greenhouse warming? Is there strong or weak intermodel agreement?
2. How are extreme El Niño events and La Niña events related and how are they not?
3. How are extreme El Niño events and La Niña events described (Fig. 1)?
4. How are extreme El Niño events outliers (Fig 1.)?
5. What causes ENSO asymmetry? Why?
6. Which index creates a stronger intermodel consensus?
7. How to the models predict rainfall will respond to ENSO SST anomalies?
8. How are extreme El Niño events, zonal SPCZ and eastward propagating El Niño events projected to change? What are some possible ramifications of this? How will this effect extreme La Niña events?
9. What are the main agents of extratropical teleconnections? Are they expected to undergo fundamental changes?
10. How will rainfall anomalies in the tropical Pacific change due to greenhouse warming? The Pacific North American pattern? The Aleutian low?
11. What are potential consequences of mean state changes due to greenhouse warming?
12. What are some uncertainties in the models associated with ENSO properties and teleconnections?