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The presumption of innocence

PART I–SHORT ANSWER: Define and state the significance (in approximately three complete sentences
each) of any 8 terms from the following list. Please note that you will not receive extra credit points for
answering more than 8 terms. Your response for each term is worth 7.5 points for a maximum of 60 points
possible in this section of the test.
Chief Executive
Chief of State
Chief Diplomat
Chief Legislator
Commander-in-Chief
unitary executive theory
judicial review
textualism
the presumption of innocence
trial courts
criminal courts
civil courts
civil liberties
civil rights
Habeas Corpus
selective incorporation
identity politics
intersectionality
Obergefell v. Hodges
Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia
PART II–MINI ESSAY QUESTIONS: Respond, in approximately five paragraphs, to any 1 of the following
questions. Please note that you will not receive extra credit points for responding to more than 1 essay
question. Your essay is worth a maximum of 40 points.
1. Political science research indicates that modern US Presidents are forced into making extensive public
policy decisions early in their first term in office while their popularity levels remain high but, before they have
had time to learn about the job and major issues facing the country. Given this trade-off, would it make sense
to amend the Constitution to restrict presidents to a single, six-year term of office? Explain. What would be the
potential advantages and disadvantages of this proposal?
2. Some political scientists assert that the Framers created the American Presidency to be somewhere in
between the weak and strong presidency models. Given our discussions of the current condition of the US
Congress and the significant growth in power by presidents since F.D.R., is it valid to argue that modern
American presidents now fit the strong presidency model, why or why not? In an increasingly globalized world
faced with the ongoing threat of terrorism, might strong presidents be better for the long-term survival and
prosperity of the US than a less-powerful chief executive? Explain. To what extent, if any, is your analysis
impacted by the first three and a half years of the Trump Presidency? Explain.
3. You are a respected authority on constitutional law who has been asked by Congress to evaluate a
proposed constitutional amendment that is supposed to make the process of judicial review more democratic.
The amendment states that US Supreme Court decisions interpreting the Constitution can be overturned by ¾
of voters in a national referendum. Discuss the positives and negatives of such a proposal. In your opinion,
should such an amendment be considered in reality? Why or why not? In your opinion, would such a proposal
have a realistic chance of being ratified? Explain.
4. Briefly describe Lineberry’s three eras of civil rights evolution, as well as the fourth era discussed in the
Evolution of Civil Rights class notes. In your opinion, what do the first three years of the Trump presidency tell
us about the current state of civil rights in the United States, as well as about the overall evolution of civil rights
in the U.S. over time? Explain. In particular, are there any civil rights insights that can be gained from our
experiences under the current COVID-19 crisis and the anti-racism protests following the killing of George
Floyd? Explain.