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The Modernized City”

1. Rama discusses that some intellectuals suggested a “way” to combat the lettered city and reduce its abusive power, what did they suggest?
2. What did the progressive transformations of the university imply for the hegemony of law and medicine?
3. What 3 growing professions absorbed some of the letrados?
4. Why did the position of letrados continue to be among the most respectable and admired in the modernized city?
5. How does Rama compare the myth of the European immigrant in the U.S. with the European immigrant in the Rio de la Plata?
6. How does Rama explain that “the rigid semantic system of the city of letters found complete vindication in legal codes and constitutions”?
7. What does Rama argue about the function of national languages and what was the attempt to “normalize” this?
8. What is the critique Rama makes about letrados like Martin Hernandez and their approach to oral production emanating from the rural culture on the peripheries like the gauchos?
9. According to Rama “costumbrista” and realist authors based their work on what characteristic?
10. According to Rama the eventual neutralization of “tango” exemplified the second great operation performed by the lettered city, why did “vulgar” traditions such as the tango represent a challenge to the supremacy of the lettered city?