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The issue of illegal immigration in the USA

This paper is an analysis of the issue of illegal immigration in the US.

Intergovernmental Relationships (IGR)
Having multiple levels of governmental hierarchy as well as various public agencies that are interrelated creates intergovernmental relationships (IGR). IGR can be extremely challenging for public administrators.

Chose one of the issues below. Write 750 – 1000 words explaining why intergovernmental relations (IGR) are so challenging, especially when dealing with the chosen issue.

1. Illegal Immigration

2. Homeland Security

3. Education

Be sure to include the various agencies that contribute to the complexity and the advantages and disadvantages of each of the agencies involved.

Use APA formatting and cite a minimum of three credible sources, such as recent news stories from The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, NPR, etc.

The issue of Illegal immigration in the US

The immigration policy in the U.S has faced a lot of changes since Head of State, Donald Trump came to power in January 2017. In his reign, it has been viewed as a threat to employment and security in the nation. This is contrary to what politicians believed in the past citing that it was part of the nation’s heritage even when they disagreed with the various policies that surrounded it. Recently, police makers are greatly divided on the same goals of immigration and the policies that should be put in place to oversee the process.
There is a difference in what the president desires and what is actually being implemented by the administration. The president has advocated for the building of a wall on the southern part of the Mexican border, abolishing legal immigration, banning of refugees from selected Muslim-majority countries and deportation of illegal immigrants. However, the administration has worked to redefine the policies that are associated with the act (Pierce, Bolter and Selee p 1). Some of the steps include adding some extra requirements on who should be prioritized for immigration, greatly reducing the admission of refugees and making the process to acquire a visa slower.
The US has a fragmented political system where the roles of different government institutions overlap (Pierre, p14). The executive, the judiciary and the legislature are all involved in policymaking which slows down the process making the ambitions of the ruling party not to be realized(Immigration Council). The three arms of government disagree with some of the proposals forwarded to amend the existing immigration policies. For instance, the courts have stopped some of the initiatives the administration tried to implement terming them as extreme. On the other hand, some local governments have been uncooperative with the state concerning the deportation policy.
Players in the management of illegal immigration in the US
As aforementioned, the United States government has a system where the roles of different government systems overlap. This implies that the three arms of the government- judiciary, executive and legislature are involved in the process of policymaking (US Immigration). While the legislature is mostly involved in making the policies, the judiciary and executive especially are involved in its implementation. The administration of Trump has managed to implement some modest policies that have enabled enforcers to reach immigrants that are in the interior parts of the country. After just one fiscal year in office, the immigration and customs enforcement extracted 61,000 immigrants from the interior parts of the country – this was a 37% increase compared to the previous year (Pierce, Bolter and Selee p 3). The courts have been on the forefront to throw out proposals that have infringed the law. Some forms of governments within the nation have also been uncooperative to support the deportation proposals forwarded by the administration.
Some other players in the policymaking process are foreign governments and human rights activist groups (US Immigration). Foreign governments with the interest of the citizens are interested in how they are treated in foreign countries. Any policies that are harsh on them may be resisted through sanctions and retaliatory policies. Also, human rights activists are interested in the policies that govern immigration. For instance, the intention to target immigrants from Muslim countries was opposed by activists on the basis of equality for all (Immigration Council). Lastly, the other group interested in the policies is people who wish to move to the US permanently. For, instance, with Trump’s attitude, it is unlikely that Muslims would be comfortable moving to the country. Most will be afraid because they are likely to be victimized or even locked out at the airport.
Roles of Players in controlling illegal immigration in the US
The different players involved in the policy have different roles. First, the legislature is involved in formulating the policies. Some of the roles of the legislature are also to promote the wishes of the president. However, the administration of Trump has neglected his rhetoric on media platforms and made policies that are less controversial and modest (Pierce, Bolter and Selee p 2). Some members of the legislature who are elected use this policy to gain some political relevance. Most of them oppose some of the extreme immigration policies to create a public image for a very diverse American audience. The executive role is to enforce the policy after it has been implemented. The judiciary, on the other hand, provides checks and balances for the policy and halts any that infringes the law. Human rights activists play the role of a ‘watchdog’ fighting against policies that infringe on human rights. The hardening of the grounds of issuing asylum has faced criticism especially in an era where nations face civil wars and internal conflicts. Another move that has faced resistance from the groups is moving of children of immigrants to foster care institutions when the parents are arrested. This is termed as an infringement on the rights of the children who are supposed to be taken care of by their parents. Foreign governments also play a role of mitigation to ensure that citizens from their countries are taken care of when they move to the US.
Influence of Activists and Human Rights Activists in managing illegal immigration in the US
The legislature has an influence on the immigration policy and it affects how it is implemented or amended. First, it consists of elected politicians who have different interests. Like mentioned earlier, some use it to foster their political ambitions. Some local governments oppose the deportation laws to show that they support affirmative action (Pierce, Bolter and Selee p 14). The move is basically used to build a political image so that they gain support for their parties and themselves. This results in some of the components of the policy being rejected or the state administration facing difficulties in implementing it. The legislature should work in unison with the central government to ensure that the policies are implemented. On the other hand, the administration should include all local governments in creating a policy to avoid a conflict of interest.
Human rights activists have an influence on the immigration policy too. First, if they reject some components of the policy, it is likely to have a negative effect on the political image of the ruling party both internally and externally. Their motive is to create a fair playing ground for all and ensuring that the policy does not infringe on the fundamental human rights. Their cause of action can lead to the abolishment of the policy by the goodwill of the administration or through court orders. This can be avoided if human rights activists are involved in the formulation of the policy. This ensures that the required changes are made at an initial stage.
The administration of President Trump has put a lot of emphasis on the immigration policy like no other government in the history of the United States. This has enabled it to reach immigrants in the interior of the country like no other administration in the history of the nation. They have also faced resistance from different arms and forms of governance frustrating their efforts as a result.

Works Cited
“U.S. Immigration Policy.” Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations,
“How the United States Immigration System Works.” American Immigration Council, 26 Mar. 2019,
Guerlain, Pierre. “US Foreign Policy of Chaos under Trump: the Wrecker and the Puppeteers.” Revue LISA / LISA e-Journal, no. vol. XVI-n°2, 2018, doi:10.4000/lisa.10208.
Pierce, Bolter and Selee Andrew. “U.S Immigration Policy Under Trump: Deep Changes and Lasting Impacts.” The migration Policy Institute. 2018. Print.