Call/WhatsApp: +1 332 209 4094

The concepts of the Mandate of Heaven, dynastic cycles.

The concepts of the Mandate of Heaven, dynastic cycles.

How did the concepts of the Mandate of Heaven, dynastic cycles, and Confucian ethic affect China’s development?

For centuries, the Mandate of Paradise and Dynastic Cycle have been core to Chinese views on authorities. The Mandate of Heaven was the idea that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at a time. The ruler’s power was bestowed upon the emperor by the blessing of the gods. An important part of the Mandate held that the emperor would use his power for good. If the king was unfair, he would lose approval and his right to govern and the empire would suffer terrible disasters. The Mandate of Heaven was created in 1027 BCE and used by the Zhou Dynasty to overthrow the Shang empire and establish power.

The Mandate was implemented for centuries to describe an upswing and move of dynasties in Asia. Historians call this pattern the dynastic cycle. The cycle followed a circle. The top of the circle would begin with a strong dynasty establishing peace and prosperity. The dynasty would be considered to have the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty would rule in a fair way and be good to the people by providing land, fair taxes, and decreasing corruption.

Nevertheless, in time the Emperor would get more potential and further eliminate himself in the people. Corruption would increase, land would be taken away from the people, and uprisings would occur. Taxes would be raised further burdening and angering the people, and the power of the Emperor would grow weaker.

The final of your dynasty would be met with disasters like floods, famines, peasant revolts and invasions. These problems became so big that the Emperor could not fix them and so the Chinese people were left on their own. Eventually people would organize against the government and revolutions would start. The Old Dynasty would be seen as having lost the Mandate of Heaven and rebellion was justified.

The Old Dynasty can be overthrown through rebellion and bloodshed. Dynasties would be attacked internally through peasant revolts and externally through hostile invasions. Eventually a new Dynasty would emerge and seize power. The New Dynasty gains power, restores peace and order, and claims to have the Mandate of Heaven. The dynastic cycle lasted until the end of the Ming Dynasty in 1644 CE.

Ancient Chinese modern society was heavily relying on its early on concepts. These philosophies developed as a response to power struggles between warring kingdoms and the political uncertainty that resulted. The major philosophies of Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism affected not only the government that ruled the land, but also its people. Even today these belief systems continue to play a role in the lives of the Chinese people.

Daoism was developed by philosopher Lao-Tzu through the Zhou Dynasty within the 6th century BC. Daoists beliefs and philosophy come from the book called Tao Te Ching written by Lao-Tzu. They believe that a universal force guides all things and the natural order is more important than social order. Humans should model this principle by trying to live as simply as possible in harmony with nature. In addition, humans should accept their situation and the negative things that happen to them because nature balances good and bad energy. The ying-yang symbol is used to represent this balance.

Another necessary approach was in accordance with the teachings and philosophies of Confucious. At the time China was in disorder because the lords were not ruling well. Confucius believed in the importance of honor and morality and that rulers needed to be honest, rule fairly, and set a good example for their subjects. If rulers acted with integrity, then their subjects would gladly follow their leadership and order would be restored to China. Confucianism teaches that respect for parents and elders is important to a well-ordered society. Strong family relationships are keys to social order, harmony, and good government. Confucianism believes in the importance of education to both the welfare of the individual and to society.

Legalism was a vital philosophy produced by Chinese philosopher Han Feizi during a time of frequent warfare in Chinese suppliers.

The very first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di, implemented legalism since he agreed upon with its basic perception that men and women have been inherently selfish and may stop being respected. He set up a strict government with tight control and enacted laws based on Legalism beliefs. Severe punishments were useful to maintain social order and he imprisoned and killed people who spoke unfavorably of him. He believed that thoughts and ideas should be strictly controlled by the government and removed books believed to contain dangerous or harmful information, including books on Confucian thought.

The Dynastic Pattern is commonly used to illustrate an upswing and fall from the early highly effective dynasties in China. These were the Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties.

The Shang dynasty ruled from 1750-1085 BCE along with thirty emperors. They had many advancements during their rule. They are credited with developing the first Chinese writing found on oracle bones that they would use to tell the future. The Shang’s great power was attributed to the use of bronze metallurgy to make weapons that allowed them to take over the previous Xia dynasty. The Shang dynasty maintained control over the bronze trade and did not allow others to access it. This dynasty was primarily under military rule and may have had over 10,000 troops.

The Zhou dynasty reigned from 1045-256 BCE and set up The Mandate of Paradise, a idea which a ruler’s expert originated a better power and is also taken away if he behaved unjustly. The Zhou Dynasty was large and relied upon a decentralized administration and feudal system. It came to an end; however, when individual states became too strong as a result of decentralization. This led to the beginning of The Warring States Period.

The Warring States Time started out in 475 BCE and ended with the slip from the Zhou dynasty in 221 BCE. Advancement in the use of iron technology for tools and weapons changed the face of war and organized armies with cavalry and masses of infantry became more common. During this period the two major philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism were created.The great literary works of these philosophies became the basis for later Chinese religious and social belief systems.

The Qin dynasty only ruled from 221-206 BCE, but offered several results to Chinese record. The emperor Qin Shihuangdi created a strict government with standardized laws, currencies, weights, and measures. This united the country and greatly improved internal trade. To protect the empire, he ordered the building of The Great Wall of China. Shi Huangdi maintained tight control over thought and ideas in China and distrusted learning and academics. He ordered 460 scholars to be buried alive and required the burning of all literary, ethical, and history books.

The Han Dynasty ruled from 202 BCE-220 CE. It is sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of China. Under Han Wudi, the Han dynasty conquered Vietnam and Koea and fought off the Northern nomadic people of Xiongnu. The Han were great inventors creating items like paper, iron casting, and agriculture techniques like crop rotation. The empire became rich from establishing trade on The Silk Road. They traded valuable goods such as iron, silk and paper.