Smart Power for Home

Abstract:


The creation of smart house in the operation of modern power systems is achieved by incorporating modern infrastructures that include information technology and control facilities. The use of numerous actuators as well as the incorporation of new types of loads increase the need for proper monitoring of the power systems. The smart house also requires having an active system for monitoring electricity activities as smart meter to ensure that the system can manage the information originating . The paper discusses the design approach for a smart house model that can be used in visualizing an Integrated Smart Power System.
Key-words:
Smart meter, Net meter, Solar and Company power Energy Systems, Power Systems.

Introduction


Consumers looking to save money in their homes by installing solar panels and batteries need an efficient way to manage the power that is produced by the solar panels, and the power stored in the batteries and used by the microgrid system. Also, the system will manage the various energies and various loads to give consumers a better cost saving experience. Also, it is important for humans to strive to an eco-friendlier and smarter interconnected world. To do so, some technologies that will help consumers earn money [1]


Background


For houses to deploy a smart energy system, a central microgrid system is necessary to manage the various loads and energies being inputted into the system. It helps regulate the energy consumption in different locations with consideration of the capacity of devices. The power from cities can be stepped down by the use of step-down transducers to meet the capacity of home-based devices which require lower capacity [2]. This is done by connecting to both AC and DC parts of the power system through components such as power meters and batteries.


The microgrid system is able to coordinate all energies inputted and outputted and smartly figure out which input will be the most economically viable options to power the load, and at what times certain powers should be used. Optimized power consumption management systems would be useful to decrease cost for providers and consumers [3] One example is during peak hours when power prices are high. In this case, it is most viable to use power from the battery that has been stored during the day by the solar panel. Inversely, when the prices are low, and the battery does not have energy, the solar panel can be directed to charge the battery while the grid can help power the house.


Solar power works when it is converted from direct current to alternating current which is stored in batteries that regulate the outflow of the power. The control requires a person to put into consideration the capacity of solar panels and the batteries which can sustain the panels. It can be controlled effectively depending o the capacity of the panels used and the output power required [4].
The microgrid system can calculate every scenario to figure out what the best outcome is. It should implement a simulation to analyze the power management schemes for solar-powered embedded systems because the sun is only up at certain periods during the day [5].
solar homes need an inverter, which aid in the conversion of DC to AC and assists in regulating power usage. Solar panel voltage should be understood in this central control system because Household devices need small voltage to work and the inverter maintains the required voltage [6]. Most central systems are designed for commercial use and do not provide the average solar consumer optimum ways to save money and energy. This central system will remedy this by providing good energy savings by using data from the solar panel energy output, grid energy cost at certain times, and battery energy levels.
The smart meter is a device used for billing and monitoring, as well as transmitting information to the central system, and can receive signals, instructions and updates [7],[8]. In addition, smart meter is used to change power operation and is used as a sensor for the distribution network [9]. Smart meter helps to provide data and detection quickly in the event of a power outage and know the reasons for power outages [9]. The net meter can be used to store energy from solar panel and save it in the electric grid, which with the right size, can produce a net positive energy consumption for the whole year[10].


On the other hand, solar panels (solar PVs) are used to trap solar energy which is utilized directly or stored in batteries for later use. For solar power have different type one of its solar shingles [11], and another one which is Silicon SolarCell Module [12]. Also, have three different of battery like Lead Acid, Lithium, Saltwater. The Lithium is expensive but have long life [13]. Another two kinds have disadvantage, like Lead Acid has short live which around five years [14]. Last one is Saltwater is new technology and only one company did it in 2017[13].


Objectives


The objective for this project is to introduce a cheap central power management device that will allow renewable energy consumers to be able to monitor and automatically change the power inputs. Monitoring will allow consumers to save money by telling what times will be best to use the renewable energy and what time is best to use power from the grid. The specific goal is to reduce the production of electricity from the main source of the consumer by design smart home which have all connect to battery, solar and smart meter.

It will become true after read the data from smart meter and make it as graph by using Excel to explain the different the data from Oregon power and from solar which help to measure the project. It can become true if can design smart house and know every items for project you need it such as Solar, smart meter, and microgrid which is heart of project. It connect between solar, smart meter and load. It will prove as realistic that by end each month for bill which come from Oregon power, and the Watt what did not use may become as credit or customer sell that to them. The time for project is important and it need fourteen weeks to improve it because you need to looking for good home and see which parts do need it to successful it.


Design Approach


The plan to solve the problem by using alternative, renewable power to convert the solar power to electricity. Also, the team used IEEE resources and google scholar. The equipment’s which is necessary for project:
Solar, Battery, Smart and net meter, Input from solar, from battery , smart meter, Output to load, output from solar to house central, Wires, Chips, Capacitor, Measure energy input and output, Woods, Flat bar, and Breadboard.
The members are four students and have expertise computer, power and microcontroller. For Mark his job will be to focus for the power, John job will be as leader for group. Tony will do coding according to his background. Sam responsibility about items. The team going to manage the project by making a chart by week and time to get a clear picture from the start to the end of the project. We identified the team management structure and listed qualifications and relevant experience of key team members by letting each student to work on the part that they have more knowledge of it.
In the figure 1.0 explains how the central home can control the power from solar and from Oregon power to home or to battery.

figure 1.0

Test and Evaluation


The integration of the electrical power system with the technologically advanced systems of the 21st century constitutes a smart grid. The approach of incorporating new technologies into the electrical power system minimize energy wastage besides enhancing energy distribution and power generation. The installation and utilization of renewable energy sources has increased considerably within the 21st century. Individuals have begun utilizing renewable energy resources with the installation of home appliances that rely on renewable energy [15]. The success criteria in this project will be through educating the community about renewable energy and how to use it to reduce financial waste in electricity and to reduce air pollution. The use of a smart meter will determine to the consumer the amount of electricity needed through the data that appear to the consumer. The most important tools needed to test the project is smart meter. The evaluation of this project will be long-term through the use of solar energy and also determined by the lifespan of solar panels, and It does not show that until it can be available in the bill for each month. In addition, the project can be successful but it need time to prove it. It is new style of power supply for home because many people cannot believe it helps until they see that by their eyes.


Schedule


The schedule is important part for the project to be successful. Because one can manage the time and know when to start and finish each task., It is explained that by using table and Gantt chart. All tasks are important to the project:

  1. Meeting and select what each one should do. Discuss what item we need.
  2. Quote parts and discus with groups, then order them.
  3. Sort parts and check if it is right and will work.
  4. Test the voltages for solar and battery.
  5. Build the project.
  6. Make sure every step was done safely.
  7. Due for first test for project, to make sure the project it is working. Weeks
    Tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
    1 X Spring
    Break
    2 X
    3 X
    4 X
    5 X X X X X
    6 x X X X X X X X X X X X
    7 X
    Table1.0. The Task Table

Contribution of each group member

John is leader for this group. He had experience about Wireless power transform. He had experience about LEadership and management engineering

Mark is person who accept idea or not and find sources of project. He had experience about power system and renewable power.

Tony had experience about coding like C , C++ and JAVA. He had experience about computer programming.

Sam is person who have responsibility about communication. He had experience about how to contact with people.


Conclusion


The introduction of central smart grid systems would allow consumers to have many benefits. It would allow consumers to save money by giving them a choice of using a calculated power option or give them a choice of manually changing which power they consume power in their homes. A central smart grid system would require very little design and would overall benefit society tremendously. Things to further improve on with this project would be perhaps having a lot of trails in order to improve the efficiency of the device.

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