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Psychological Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards

Psychological Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards

Examine the APA Code of Ethics and the Ethical Principles of Psychologist
DELIMA)and select from one of the (4) ethical dilemmas listed below and summarize how this it is a violations
to the APA ethics of best practices and discuss the specific codes of violation. Evaluate the ethical violations
and address how these issues affect the validity of the assessment outcome with scholarly journal articles.
Write a 6 Page essay incorporating the following elements based on your findings:
Discuss the ethical case scenario and applicable qualities that relate to the APA ethical codes.
Write your own critical review on the infractions and your analysis on how to address the problems noted.
Take an affirmative position on whether or not these ethical challenges affect the validity of the case, and if
there are additional test biases noted.

Integrity really are a huge, essential topic in mental health investigation. What is necessarily taken into consideration in regards to ethics before conducting research is studied and then read again and again in guidelines and codes of conduct. But what lies beyond the legislations in ethics? Where should a researcher’s moral compass be pointing to? Here are the outlines proposed by the APA and some general discussion relating to them.

From the undergrad course load in mindset we have acquainted with the essential character of investigation integrity fairly earlier, typically within PSY 101: Summary of psychology or possibly a similar course. It is likely that some of the most memorable experiments that we will read about during our undergraduate studies – for instance Stanley Milgram’s renowned “Behavioral Study of Obedience” – would be presented as revealing examples of ethical misconduct. It appears we have come a long way since the days of such illuminating but rightfully controversial scientific endeavors, with the Australian branch of the British Psychological Society publishing their first Code of Ethics in 1949 after the Nuremberg trials (Allan & Love, 2010) or the American Psychological Association’s (APA) first Code of Ethics appearing back in 1953 and evolving ever since. Today volumes such as these, along with many other influential publications by national and international psychological prescriptive and regulatory bodies guide and dictate the proper ways of conducting research and practicing the varied aspects of the psychological profession in regards to ethics.

Psychological investigation however remains to be prone to controversial experimental models and methods as a result of mother nature of your questions it deals with. In the research we carry out as psychologists we may often recruit other human beings as Ss (study participants/subjects) and thus open the sensitive topic of human research ethics. When we select a design including other people we are obliged to follow a set of enforceable rules of conduct – either those of our university’s ethics board or, later in our careers, those of the psychological association we belong to and the institution we are affiliated with. Often these mandatory prescriptions are called Ethical Standards and exist to ensure the safety and continuous well-being of the participants. (APA, 2010) They often overlap with laws – some examples from the comprehensive list of APA’s ethical standards include protection against harassment, discrimination and harm, ensuring the confidentiality of the person and extracting their informed and voluntary consent, to name a few. Some others are not necessarily parallel to existing laws, but are similarly straightforward and clearly well-grounded – such as the need to debrief participants of the purpose of the study after their participation has ended or ensuring their right to withdraw from the investigation at any given moment. A third type of ethical standards seem relatively blurred and borderline arbitrary, presenting a unique obstacle in defining what is truly a breach of ethical norms – like the standard protecting prospective participants from deception, except in the cases where “… they [the psychologist] have determined that the use of deceptive techniques is justified by the study’s significant prospective scientific, educational, or applied value and that effective nondeceptive alternative procedures are not feasible.” (p. 11), making the reading of the standard prone to ambiguous and possibly exploitive interpretations.

Complementing the various honest requirements are APA’s five Standard Rules of Ethics for Psychologists. Prescriptive/non-enforceable in nature, the general principles are there not to limit and impose on us, but instead to “guide and inspire psychologists toward the very highest ethical ideals of the profession” (p. 3) – be it in their clinical practice, while conducting a study, consulting a company, etc. Here is a concise overview of how we can translate them to research, how respecting them enriches and elevates our practice and how dismissing them may result in tainting an otherwise brilliant and illuminating research:

Basic principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence – The 1st basic principle suggests that “In their specialist actions, psychologists attempt to defend the interest and legal rights of people with whom they interact professionally as well as other impacted folks as well as the welfare of wildlife topics of research”`(p.3) , among other. Many ethical standards are already in place to ensure that externally. In terms of personal consideration, the first principle stresses out the need for researchers to work independently of biases (itself a vast, multifaceted topic that poses an obstacle to quality science making), prejudices, and malignant affiliations and with a clear sense that what they are doing has very often impact on the lives of others. It is thus important for us to have an understanding that biased research affects the public negatively not only through the wide-reaching reports by media, but also by its usage by policymakers and lawmakers and always to stay critical and alert for such possibility.

Concept B: Fidelity and Obligation – Environment out the necessity for conscientiousness inside the emotionally charged process and study, another principle somewhat overlaps with the first one. It differs in the focus it has, moving into an overview of what to mind when working with our colleagues and within our work network. While responsibility is a universally understood value, the principle also states that “.. [psychologists] are concerned about the ethical compliance of their colleagues’ scientific and professional conduct. Psychologists strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage” (p.3). In research his might translate to us as taking part of the peer-review process, striving to help fellow scientists improve the quality of their work before it enters into circulation. Ethical misconduct should be pointed out whenever we can spot it, but it is always to be done with respect to the researcher who conducted it, as decision-making in relation to ethics is fairly complex and influenced by factors that may lie beyond one’s control. (Trevino & Youngblood, 1990)

Concept C: Truthfulness – Your third basic basic principle summarizes whatever we should are suggested to stay away from performing in your process as scientists. Cases of manipulation, fraud, fabricating results and general scientific misconduct are not unheard of, affecting tremendously the field. A somewhat recent widely publicized case of such lack of integrity is that of Mr. Diederik Stapel, a Dutch social psychologist who fixed the results in over 30 of his papers, some of which were published in prestigious and esteemed journals. (Callaway, 2011) Even though fraud is controlled for and strict sanctions are enforced against it (Mr. Stapel lost not only his reputation, but also his job) another vast concern – deception – is treated differently. The third principle states that “[…] psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques” (APA, 2010) . Deception according to a number of investigators is the “explicit provision of erroneous information – in other words, lying”, estimated to occur in some 40-55% of the papers published in influential social psychology journals. (Hertwig & Ortmaan, 2008) This naturally rises the question how is it possible a last-resort design such as these that include deception to be so widely popular. What is sure though is that deception should be avoided and psychologist should think long and hard whether or not the potential benefits of using such a method outweighs the explicit and implicit harms