Procedural Safeguards (Notice, Confront/present Evidence)

Plead guilty?
Notice – Y
Confront evidence – Y
Present evidence – Y

Discovery (mandatory/on request/dates to disclose)

On request, each do their own investigation and there is a neutral and impartial judge

Rights Against Self-Incrimination (When rights warning triggered)

Yes; read miranda rights unless officer knowingly aware of imminent threat; if officer is unknowing of threat they still must be read miranda and it cannot be rescinded

False Confessions; better training? No right to deceive suspect → punishable for investigator

Votes Required for Conviction

(WHEN USING JURY) Majority decision / not unanimous (13 jury members, 7-6); if not judicial discretion

Maximum Punishment (vote required for punishment)

New jury for punishment
Vote required
Mandatory minimums for drugs? N
Mandatory minimums for violent crimes
Death penalty ( crimes against humanity, 25+, war crimes)

Public Access to Trial:
• Discretion of the judge
• Purpose is to reduce wrongful convictions
Sentencing Goals

Deterrence, Retribution, Incapacitation, Rehabilitation

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Business Management Industry

Students across the globe are faced with tough choices when it comes to selecting college and university courses that may ultimately define their career paths. Many times students are advised to select courses that shall align to their passion, but truth is at the ages between 18 and 22 years; most of students have little experience of the external world and as such they are still on an exploration path to clearly define what they want to do for the rest of their lives (College Choice, 2018).

Business management has over the years stood out as among the top choice courses chosen by students globally. This may be attributed to several factors such as the nature of the course, which is it is nontechnical, the relatively short time it takes to complete it as compared with other fields such as medicine and the diversity of choices it offers an individual in terms of career paths that can be chosen once completed (Kumar &Sharma, 2000). As such, this gives a business management a graduate a lot of options and opportunities in the job market not to mention the business world having being imparted with the requisite skills and knowledge to setup and manage a business.
Business management is a discipline that covers a vast area in the business world from organizing, analyzing, and planning various business activities (Dockery & Knudsen 2018). This generalization may seem vague, but job roles get clearly defined depending on the specific field of interest one chooses along the way. Ed (2014) indicates that to become a business manager, one has to undertake a 4-year bachelor’s degree course in the university in relevant business courses such as marketing administrating, accounting, or finance. Individuals with a certification in Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) from a credible institution also have an equivalent chance to practice as a business manager. In the contemporary job market, companies prefer applicants with and MBA as a complimentary degree if not the primary degree. For example, an Information Communications and Technology officer with a business management degree or equivalent. It is considered that besides understanding systems and how they work, such an individual also understands its business dynamics and can easily fine tune business operation within the system in the company’s favor. They can also offer financial advice to the company from data analyzed within the system.
Degree programs under business management teach students how to efficiently run and manage business operations from large corporates to small business entities. A degree in business management has several job titles attached to it, making one of the largest industries in the job market. With an MBA degree, one can land themselves a job in either of the following fields: advertising, hospitality manager, entrepreneurship, public administration, information systems, business analyst or consultant, operations manager, sales agent, and supply chain management, among many others.
Besides the unlimited options in terms of career paths and job market opportunities, business management has several benefits to individuals who pursue it.
Transferrable: Most degrees are rigid and limit individuals to a specific industry where their skill sets can apply. However, with a business management degree, one can transfer their skill sets to several different industries. For example, doctor may be limited to only working in the health industry, however; a business manager can work in the health industry, manufacturing, banking sector, and many others (Bates, 2005).
Flexibility: Having being imparted with skills in business, one is free to maneuver across different job roles in different industries. One may decide to run their own business, become a business consultant, or an operations manager at some point in their career (Bates, 2005).
Descent earnings: MBA graduates pride themselves in landing well-paying jobs with some having the potential of earning six-figure salaries especially if they graduate from high-end universities. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics estimates that the average earnings of a business manager is 77,000 US dollars per year (Ed, 2014)
As established, business management is a large industry with its presence in almost every industry and job category (Burrow, 2013). Ed (2014) indicates that the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that administrative fields shall grow by an estimated 12% in 2018 creating a pool of opportunities for students with competencies in this sector. In the United States, among the fastest growing industries are health care and medical services, finance sector, construction, and transport. All these industries require administrators that oversee the organizations’ operations as well as managing their finances. The vault reports that there are over 134 million people working as business managers or administrators in different industries. Projecting this across the globe, the business industry commands a significant number of employees in the job market. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the leading industries in terms of business include advertising, public relations, market research, construction and real estate, oil and gas, trade and logistics, and the manufacturing sector (Balakrishnan et al., 2017). This further boosts the prospects of prospecting business managers who shall aspire to fill administrative job positions created by companies in these sectors of the economy.
The business industry is the single largest contributor to state economies globally. Business management mainly focuses in the industrial and service sectors of the economy. Statistics estimate that in the UAE, the industrial sector contributed to 44.6% of the GDP while the service sector contributed to 54.7% (Balakrishnan et al., 2017). In the recent years, governments of the UAE states have sought to diversify their economy from being over reliant in the oil and gas industry. As such, the government committed to prudent spending of the oil proceeds into other economic sectors so as to boost their economies. One such state is Dubai, which invested heavily in infrastructure development to boost their service and tourism industry. Across the UAE, public spending on real estate and infrastructure stood at 47 billion annually in 2016 (Balakrishnan et al., 2017). In turn, the business industry has significantly grown creating many job opportunities and generating enormous wealth for states within the UAE. Trade and foreign investments have also grown further boosting the business management industry in the UAE. The service industry has been indicated to be the key driver of UAE’s economy from 2016 to 2030. Augustine (2016) reports that the business sector focused on tourism and travel accounted for 58% of service export in 2015 with projections estimating it to reach 62% by the year 2030.
Business management has several job titles that can be defined under it commanding different pay perks and roles. There are also different types of mangers who equally have different roles, payments, and level of expertise and experience.
Senior managers: They are responsible for dictating the direction the company takes. They possess a high level of skill and expertise as they are solely responsible for strategic decisions the company makes and therefore playing a crucial role in the growth and success of a company (Ward & Daniel, 2012).
Midlevel managers: They sit between the top management and the lower-level employees. They are tasked with the duty of implementing top management decisions and strategy. They are mostly department heads in the organization’s hierarchy (Ward & Daniel, 2012).
Supervisor: These are individuals that are responsible for managing other employees. They channel issues regarding the company’s operation to middle management. Supervisors serve as role models to other lower-level employees setting an example to other employees.
Business managers can work on any of these levels of management overseeing crucial operations and making important decisions. Common management job titles associated to business management are;
Marketing managers: Marketing managers are responsible for creating new strategy and campaigns that shall sell the company brands or products to attract new customers while marinating the existing ones. They mobilize teams that execute various marketing programs such as advertising, outreach programs, and community services.
Nancy R is a marketing manager working at Leaders Training Center in the UAE. She has a Master’s degree from Cairo University and is specifically skilled in management, strategic planning, marketing strategy, and leadership. Maureen A. Sika is a part-time tutor at ISA Africa. She has a Bachelor’s degree in commerce with a major in financing. Fatma Emadi works as a marketing manager at Dubai Media Incorporated. She has a master’s degree in Business management from Oxford Brookes University. The average earnings for marketing managers range from $44,000 to $153,000 depending on the management level (LinkedIn).
Financial manager: They ensure that the company’s financial health is fine. They handle financial obligations such as taxes, liabilities and assets, annual financial reports, among other related activities. They come up with strategies that are aimed at reducing operations costs and maximizing profit.
Reuben Mwelwa, a finance manager at UAE exchange, has a master degree in finance majoring in finance with over 10 years of experience working as an accountant. CA Jiby Antony is a finance manager at Mac World Industries Sdn Bhd in Malaysia. He has a master’s degree in Finance, Accountancy, Audit, Tax, and Business Law from the Institute of Chartered Accounts of India. Sanoj George is finance operations manager and business analyst at UAE exchange. He has skills in finance, Management Information Systems, and business analytics. He pursued a master’s degree in Business Administration, Finance, and Banking. He also has an IT training background. Financial managers’ salaries vary from $53,000 to $156,000 annually (LinkedIn).
Branch manager: Branch managers are responsible for steering office branches of business entities such as banks or microfinance institutions. They are responsible for overall operations such as hiring, approvals, marketing, and any other business operations that are conducted within these offices. The estimated annual salaries of branch managers stand at an average of $47,500 to $110,000 annually (LinkedIn).
Mohamed Mosadak Ageez , branch manager at Etisalat, UAE has a Bachelor’s degree in Management Information Systems from Delta University for Science and Technology. Ashraf Issam is a branch manager at UAE exchange pursued a bachelor’s degree in Business administration and finance at Yarmouk University in Jordan. Ahmed Safwat Hashim pursued a bachelor’s of commerce accounting in Sohag University and now works as a Branch Manager at Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank in Egypt.
The above examples are of individuals in the specified job titles that are affiliated to the business management description. As highlighted, the job descriptions have gone from vague to more define when focusing on a specific job title.
Business management employees enjoy normal working hours depending on the country of origin, which is an average of 8–10 working hours per day (Bureau of Labor Statistics). On very few occasions, there shall be emergency call up while on holiday, leave, or off work unlike in other job professions such as law enforcement, medicine, aviation, among others.
As evidenced by the highlighted individuals in the business management career path, one can always seek to pursue high-level education beyond the bachelor’s degree. Some of these individuals have gone ahead to pursue certifications in either complimentary business courses or ICT courses making them more skillful ultimately marketable in the job market (Dockery & Knudsen, 2018). Certification courses may take anywhere between 6 and 18 months to complete. They offer additional skill sets that are relevant in real-world application and compliment what one has specialized in in campus (College Choice).
Business management is indeed a prime course to undertake for students seeking to pursue a career in the business industry. It has several benefits among them transferrable skills, flexibility, increased job opportunities, and favorable salaries. There are several different job titles associated with business management with mangers working at several levels from supervisor level, mid management to top level managers. Different job descriptions and management levels in business management have different pay packages and skill sets required to serve in the respective capacities. Being an industry with such diversity, business management employs a large number of people while contributing greatly to state and global economies.

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