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Policy instrument

Chapter 3: Question 1

What is meant by the “blurring” of the sectors? In what ways does this occur?

Blurring of the sectors is when there is an overlap and interrelation between public and private agencies. This happens when agencies perform both the roles of public and private agencies and these include, carrying out public service as required, while also pursuing the traditional economic interests (Rainey, Fernandez & Malatesta, 2021). Blurring of sectors also occurs when there is the need to save a company, where its failure would be devastating such as the loss of numerous jobs and the death of an economically significant agency.

Blurring of sectors also occurs when companies, partially public and partially private, are a hybrid meant to create increased service delivery. According to Rainey, Fernandez and Malatesta (2021) this blurring occurs when a government wants to increase access to a particular service hence enlisting the help of a private company, to provide a public service effectively and at an affordable cost. It is continually becoming a common practice in most countries, especially emerging economies.

Chapter 4: Question 2

Describe the population ecology perspective on organization survival.

According to the population ecology perspective, an organization’s survival depends on the origin, development and the decline of its human population. Rainey, Fernandez and Malatesta (2021) note that human population makes up for the biological concepts that determine the survival of the organization. This includes the ability of the organization to take over certain ecological niches and optimize its resources for success and survival.

According to the population ecology perspective, organizations go through variation, selection and retention. Variation is the phenomenon where organizations experience new forms over time and these new forms and planned sometimes not planned. Selection is the process where biological concepts survive or prosper in the organization based on their ability to take over a niche and fill its capacity effectively (Rainey, Fernandez & Malatesta, 2021). In the population ecological perspective, retention serves to ensure organizational survival through the maintenance of certain organizational practices and internal processes.

Taylor Samuel

What is a policy instrument, and how is it used?
Policy instruments are the tools which can be used to overcome problems and achieve objectives. They include conventional transport methods such as new infrastructure, traffic management and pricing policies, but increasingly they also involve attitudinal changes and use of information technology.They include traditional fiscal instruments, including for example subsidies, taxes, charges and fiscal transfers. Additionally, instruments such as tradable pollution permits or tradable land development rights rely on the creation of new markets.

How did Dahl and Lindblom distinguish between agencies and enterprises?
Dahl and Lindblom described the complex continuum of types of organizations ranging from enterprises (organizations controlled primarily by markets) to agencies (public or government-owned organizations). There are also on the continuum various forms of agencies and enterprises, ranging from the most public to the most private of organizations.The Public-Private Continuum depends on 2 major elements: (1) Ownership (public or private) and (2) Funding (public or private). The Continuum also shows the amount of economic authority, public authority, and “publicness” (degree of political influence and subject to some level of external governmental control). Dahl and Lindblom construct their continuum of hybrid organizational forms based on differences in ownership. They used theoretical analysis of societal decision and allocation mechanism methodology to conclude that Agencies under government control have more intangible goals, less incentive for cost reduction, more dysfunctions of bureaucracy than do enterprises controlled by markets.