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How Organizational Culture Operates

Question 1

            Organizational culture contains multiple qualities that are present within an organization.  These can be positive or negative having a direct effect on the organization. When evaluating how culture affects employees, this can ultimately have an effect on customer satisfaction and stakeholders.  Organizational culture shares a common definition which implies there are “shared basic assumptions” (Nikpour, 2017, p. 66).  Culture can be further understood that basically members of an organization “share values, norms, guiding beliefs, and understandings” and further ensuring new members understand this culture (Daft, 2016, p. 386).  Additionally, culture is not something that is written but more of “feeling part of the organization” (Daft, 2016, p. 386).

            With this understanding, feelings are not something that can be observed by an outsider.  It is understood that “culture has two levels” (Daft, 2016, p. 387).  The level that is visible has some aspects that can be observed which are approximately 30% as some “values may be deeper” and may not be easily observed (Daft, 2016, p. 387).  The values that are observable include employee preferences like clothes and how employees behave which can include certain “symbols, stories, and ceremonies” (Daft, 2016, p. 66).  The culture within an organization are based on experiences and how employees react to those experiences together which may contain “history, product, market, technology and strategy, types of employees, management style, and external culture” (Nikpour, 2017, p. 66).  Other factors that may be observed include the design of workspace and internal processes set by management (Daft, 2016).  Basically, in this situation it is unclear as to why an outside observer would need to understand the organizational culture.  Those who have worked in the organization for multiple years would have a complete understanding of the culture as this is built through shared experiences.

Chapter 11

Question 1 

            Top management within an organization should understand that the external environment is the precursor for change within an organization (Daft, 2016).  For example, organizations who rely on technology must continuously evaluate what is new and what is obsolete. Comcast is a leader in technology as this is the basis for their existence.  If leaders within this organization do not stay ahead with introducing new technology, this may hurt their standing as the top in the industry.  Management should be prepared by continuously evaluating external factors and planning strategy to embrace this change (Daft, 2016).  One type of change that is a result of the external environment is “continuous change” which is directly related to a “rapidly shifting environment” (Daft, 2016, p. 422).  If management ignores change within the external environment, this can be detrimental to the organization. 

            The external environment may demand change but management must also pay close attention to the internal environment specifically culture.  Some characteristics that may need to change includes features such as “decision-making processes, communication, interpersonal relationships, leadership, and management style” (Rizescu & Tileag, 2016).  Once the culture is established within an organization, it is a challenge for management to implement change (Daft, 2016).  One key concept that may enable change is “organizational development” which can be used to not only change employee perception but management as well enabling them to “adapt to the changing environment” (Rizescu & Tileag, 2016, p. 140).

Chapter 12

Question 1

            Research actually shows that managers should use both “rational analysis and intuition in making complex decisions” (Daft, 2016, p. 477).  This seems opposite of the evidence-based management model which establishes decisions should be made using “facts and evidence” (Daft, 2016, p. 500).  This indicates not using intuition but basing the information on facts that includes specific evidence (Daft, 2016). 

            The basic understanding of organizational decision-making is “identifying and solving problems” (Daft, 2016, p. 468).  A rational approach to decision-making includes eight steps enabling a thought process that enables a manager to make an informed decision (Daft, 2016).  These steps seem to fit the evidence-based management as this will encourage conducting research with each step that should lead to focusing on the facts.  These steps include “monitoring the decision environment, defining the decision problem, specifying decision objectives, diagnosing the problem, developing alternative solutions, evaluating alternatives, choosing the best alternative, and implementing the chosen alternative” (Daft, 2016, pp. 471-472).  The steps include a well thought out process which is very similar to the evidence-based model requiring “being careful and thoughtful, examining the evidence with rigor” (Daft, 2016, p. 500). Further, with the evidence-based model, it is suggested that management evaluate past decisions to determine which worked the best for each situation encouraging learning by experience. (Daft, 2016).

Chapter 13

Question 1

            Management will typically use the rational model if certain facets are present including established goals, small discrepancy in procedures, and determining if funding is available (Daft, 2016).  The political model works best when there are multiple differences specifically between groups who have “separate interests, goals, and values” (Daft, 2016, p. 518).  As some issues may be complicated and include “disagreements and conflict”, managers will find that using “power and influence” are needed ensuring the best decision is embraced (Daft, 2016, p. 518). 

            In most organizations, managers will use both models to make decisions but the political model is used the most and for decisions that involve “accomplishing objectives” (Daft, 2016, p. 519).  If management chooses the rational model when there are clear differences in objectives, this may lead to conflict that can escalate preventing results (Daft, 2016). 

Biblical Worldview

            There are multiple incidents of conflict within the Bible.  In Acts, a conflict arose where the Jews were insisting that Gentile believers must be circumcised before they could be saved (Acts 15:1, ESV).  To resolve the conflict Paul and Barnabas were sent to handle the issue.  Basically, Paul explained that we are “saved through grace of the Lord Jesus” (Acts 15:11, ESV).  After the group searched Scripture discussing the issue while being led by the Holy Spirit, it was determined that the Gentiles did not need to be circumcised (Acts 15:19, ESV).  This is an example of leaders interpreting Scripture and following in obedience.  The conflict was resolved with expediency through a mutual love for Christ.  Christians should act the same in every situation whether at home, church or work. 

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