multiple sclerosis

Introduction

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease affects approximately 1 million people in the United States. It is estimated that nearly 2.3 million people have currently suffered the burden of MS globally.  The main characteristic associated with MS is the destruction of myelin. It also damages axons, which leads to permanent disability.

Multiple Sclerosis is more likely to affect people who live in certain environments and those who belong to specific ethnicities. Despite the recent advances in research on the types of risk factors and implications, the pathogenesis of the disease is not yet known. Based on previous research that explored both genetic as well as geographical epidemiology of the disorder, the current literature has studied how the disorder increases from a combination of genetic susceptibility as well as environmental exposures that acts from childhood to adulthood

For many people, the first brush with what is to be later diagnosed as multiple sclerosis is what physicians refer to as a clinically isolated syndrome. This occurrence of neurological signs often lasts for 24 hours. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly informs the body to attack the myelin sheath, which is the protective sheath over nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. The process of demyelination causes scars or lesions that make it more difficult for signals to travel between the human body and brain. In most cases, the disease affects one eye, but in rare cases, can affect both eyes. Like the other types of MS, there is also numbness and tingling, which usually affects the arms and legs. Research shows that not everyone having clinically isolated syndrome will get multiple sclerosis, but the odds are higher for those who have lesions in their brains due to the loss of myelin.
Of the numerous stages of multiple sclerosis, Primary multiple sclerosis, is the most common and can be terminal. Clinicians can assist in the management of MS through various combination measures such as nutrition, supplements, exercise, rehabilitation, medication, and and non-pharmacological alternatives. The disease of MS is broad which may cause each patient to be affected differently, all depending on the disease course and progression. Therefore, initiating treatment through non-invasive measures such as proper nutrition and supplements can be the first step of treatment plan. Research shows that the effects of MS is highly amongst those who receive aggressive treatment rather than those who do not. Further, it entails that patients suffer more of the side effects of medications rather than the disease itself which subsequently causes patients to be non-compliant.
Signs and symptoms of MS
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease that causes many symptoms. The more in-depth of the progression of the disease guarantees vigorous symptoms. The most common symptoms includes bowel and bladder problems (Lin et al., 2019). Another symptom is a lack of coordination or clumsiness, making it difficult for someone to get around (Yang & Liu, 2019). Symptoms progress to trouble walking, keeping balance, maintaining coordination, gait stability and dizziness. Depression and emotional changes can also occur with multiple sclerosis (Lin et al., 2019). As one is aware of the slow deterioration process, multiple sclerosis may cause nystagmus, which is an involuntary eye movement, and diplopia or double vision (Burke, 2019). Apart from weakness or fatigue, muscle spasms usually affect patient’s legs (Yang & Liu, 2020). Muscle spasms are an early symptom for nearly all patients who have multiple sclerosis. The same symptoms can also affect people with progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients may also feel intense painful spasms or mild stiffness (Burke, 2019). Erection problems in men and vaginal dryness in women may be felt. Patients may be less responsive to touch, have a lower sex drive, and may have trouble reaching orgasm (Makris, Piperopoulos & Karmaniolou, 2014).