Leadership styles and perspectives

The current report sought to explore the concept of leadership leadership styles and perspectives focusing on scientific management and value leadership perspectives. The report also sought to establish the effectiveness of the perspectives at various management levels as well as the leadership style associated with each perspective.

Leadership styles and perspectives

Leadership perspective refers to the way people view leaders and their respective behaviors and actions when leading others. These perspective influences how one measures the effectiveness and success of a leader. Gagnon (2012) identified five different perspectives that influence how people view a leader. The leadership perspectives identified included leadership as a scientific management, excellence management, leadership as a value-displacement act, spiritual leadership and cultural leadership (Daft, 2015). According to Fairholm (2004) the leadership perspectives are overly paradigmatic and therefore shapes the management practice of leadership in terms of the definition of leadership, the behaviors and tools adopted as well as the leadership styles adopted in managing and controlling the followers. While exploring the concept of leadership perspectives, the current paper focuses on excellent management and value leadership will look at the effectiveness of two main leadership perspectives, scientific management and values leadership at different management levels.

Leadership styles and Perspectives: Effectiveness and associated leadership styles

Scientific management leadership styles and perspective is drawn from the concept of scientific management movement of the early twentieth century. The perspective emphasizes on the ability of the management to maintain higher productivity and efficient use of resources (Gagnon, 2012). Proponents of the leadership styles and perspective assert that en effective leader is one who is capable of completing the organizational tasks with maximum efficiency. Efficiency is achieved through proper planning, organization tasks, adequate staffing, and proper coordination, reporting and budgeting (Daft, 2015). This suggests that an effective leader must focus on achieving the organizational goals, with proper utilization of the allocated resources to ensure maximum efficiency is attained.

The scientific management leadership styles and perspectives is effective in assuring proper control and predictability of group activities within an organization. In addition, the perspective is effective in ensuring that all the organizational tasks are accomplished within the stated deadline (Yukl, 2016). Through controlling and giving directions to the followers, the leaders who possess the scientific management leadership styles and perspectives are capable of offering maximum productivity and proper allocation to the organization (Mullins, 2010). As such, taking the scientific management leadership styles and perspectives is vital in situations where maximum productivity and efficient use of the organizational resources is desired.

The scientific management leadership perspective is mainly associated with transactional form of leadership. According to Muenjohn and Armstrong (2015) transactional leadership style entails the use of both rewards and punishment to ensure the followers comply with the set organizational rules. The leaders adopting the style focuses on supervision, controlling, organization of the followers to assure the attainment of a higher performance just as observed in the case of the scientific management perspective. As such, leaders who view leadership from the scientific management perspective are likely to adopt the transactional leadership style.

Values leadership leadership styles and perspectives focuses on the attainment of the organizational goals through shared values between the leader and the followers and not merely through giving direction and control. This perspective differs from the scientific management perspective in that the manager in the former case focus on the people as opposed to production or efficiency (Fairholm, 2004). Productivity under this perspective is pursued through creation of a culture that supports the values of the followers thus leading to mutual growth and enhanced self-determination (Scovetta & Ellis, 2015). The effectiveness of the value leadership style lies on its ability to creative proactive followers capable of contributing positively towards the accomplishment of the organizational goals. The perspective is also vital in self-led followers thus leading to the attainment of higher performance. As such, followers are likely to work towards the attainment of the organization goals, not through forceful directions, but through the creation of shared values that enhances their self-drive.

The management under the values leadership leadership styles and perspectives rely on coaching, empowering and value prioritization as approaches adopted in the management of the followers to assure the full attainment of the organizational goals. Moreover, this leadership styles and perspectives also acknowledges that the principles of management are vital and needs to be taken into consideration in any leading process of the desired organizational performance is to be attained (Yukl, 2016). The most probable leadership styles under the values leadership leadership styles and perspectives include transactional and trans-formational leadership. According to Kim (2014) transactional leadership focuses on compliance through controlling and giving of orders while trans-formational leadership style focuses on the identification of the needed change, creation of a vision and inspiring of the followers for them to execute the needed change. As much as some relations are evident between value leadership perspective and transactional leadership, the perspective is largely associated with trans-formational leadership style. This is due to the fact that the style focuses on creation of values and inspiration of the followers to effect changes that is also fostered in the perspective (Yukl, 2016). Leaders holding the values leadership leadership styles and perspectives are therefore likely to implement some aspects of transactional leadership, while emphasizing the use of transformational leadership style in the management of the subjects.