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Japan’s Long-Term Economic Prospectus

APA does not use a heading for the introduction reasoning that the first section is always the introduction.  The tile of the paper should be repeated here.  See the sample APA papers posted to Discussions/Online Office.  As we learn during this course Write for an interested reader who is not in this course.  some concepts in economics, we can correlate and bring more insights to these theories and concepts by looking into and analyzing one of the world’s largest economies. The objective is to analyze the chosen topic with the theory, not to use the topic to illustrate the theory.  This paper explores how the long-term economic prospects  of Japan affects the country’s economy. This sentence says that the economy affects the economy.  That’s not what you intend.  The objective of the paper is to use macroeconomic theory to analyze Japan’s economy.  The first part includes the status “an outlook” of Japan economy. The second part will compare the contents in this outlook Use relevant macroeconomic theory to analyze (or understand) Japan’s current economy and its long-term prospects with macroeconomics and, finally, conclude with measures the country already has put forward and some of my own findings during the research to reach the better economic expectations in the coming years.  There are many grammatical and punctuation errors. 

Japans Economic Outlook  Level 1 headings should be centered

Indent each paragraph.  In a paragraph, provide the reader with an overview of Japan’s recent economic history (last couple of decades – you need more references for this). Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s economic policy, known as “Abenomics”, has brought both pros and cons to Japan’s economy. Starting with the good news, “On June 10, Japan upgraded its Q1 GDP growth to annual 4.1 percent, higher than the government’s earlier projection of 3.5 percent” (2013, Xinhua News  This is ancient history.  References must be current within the last year or so.). This policy has three targets with the monetary policy, an expansionary fiscal policy and policy for “new growth measures”.  You will need to explain in more detail what each of these arrows entail.  The basics are here but the reader will need more information.  Bank of Japan has a positive lean what is a positive lean? towards the monetary policy continuity with quantitative easing what is quantitative easing?  , negative real interest rates How can interest rates be negative?  and an inflation target of 2.0%. What is the current inflation rate?  Major pros as we can see are the 2% increase in Japan’s industrial production, 0.8% rise in retail sales and improving manufacture’s, consumers and corporate sentiment. Extended economic growth in Japan includes, lower fiscal deficits what is the current deficit and national debt? How do these compare with other developed economies?, comparatively less unemployment, and higher female labor force participation. Labor market legislation has been approved by Japan’s parliament as they foresee rise in public social spending If spending is increasing, how can deficits be lowered?, higher dependencies on whom?, shortage of labor forces why is Japan facing a shortage of labor?, chances of inter-generational conflict Why would Japan face intergenerational conflict? loss of productivity as a result of ageing population as well as shrinking population and as a result social and defense expenses goes up Why would defense spending increase as a result of a shrinking population.  (2018, IMF).   You can’t just paraphrase reports; you must explain what all this means. 

Some of the graphical outlooks IMF has released after their findings on Japan’s economic profile and policy priorities:

Solid Growth                                                                    BoJ’s monetary policy

Interest rate spike                                                                             Shrinking Population

Dependency Ratio

These are good graphics that might be relevant, but you must explain what each shows.  You can’t leave your reader to try to interpret each. 

These are not the required graphical depictions of theory required for the course. 

First and second Quarter Country Risk Report 2019

Japanese economies biggest risk is rise in global bond yields this create an extensive sell off in the Japanese currency. Exchange rates are not covered in this course.  If you wish to introduce this element, you will need to explain what this sentence means and how the economics work.  Potential risk of domestic inflation. This is not a sentence.  Japanese inflation has been below the central bank target for most of 20 years.  What is the risk of inflation?  What would cause inflation?  These key risks can affect the Bank of Japans ability to keep borrowing cost low. (Q1, 2019). Shows Japans domestic and external debts, countries fiscal crisis, economies scores both short-term and long-term for the country seems to be 66.5 and 71.3 what are these scores and what do they measure?  respectively. country’s long-standing democratic credentials, lack of social tensions and stable security profile all seems to have positive effect towards countries political risk. What is political risk?  How would it affect the economy?  This article also shows the effect of LDP what is LDP? in countries progress on the fronts of foreign policy and trade agreements and shows factors affecting relation with exports between neighboring nations (Q2, 2019). 

This section mentions many factors that affect the Japanese economy, but none is explained.  Your paper must demonstrate your understanding of each factor and how it fits within macroeconomic theory.    

Do not add spaces. 

Macro economical View

            “On the Macroeconomic side, population aging is one of the hot topics”. Citation must be provided for a quote.  As we know the supply and demand laws supply and demand is microeconomics, not macro.  in economics, population ageing, and effective control of fertility rate affects labor supply and saves the supply side of the economy how can these factors “save” the economy?  In fact, these are serious long-term restraints on the supply side or aggregate supply.  and helps by shrinking demand. How would shrinking demand help the economy?  On the other side, social security expenditure on pension and medical care, increases the government expenditure. It does; what is the implication for the economy?  Other critical factors are, reforms on tax, fiscal system, social security, corporate governance reforms, labor market reforms as spokesmen Du mentioned (2013, Xinhua News).  Decrease in growth and productivity are factors that follows a shrinking and aging labor force and results in a shift towards consumption.  This is the first attempt at an explanation of any of the factors mentioned. also fiscal challenges will take steep climbs government spending and a shrinking tax base which are after effects of ageing population (2018, IMF).   There is no theory in this section.  The paper must use the theory developed in Arnold to analyze the economy. 


Several factors affecting economy such as private consumption, employment, income and inflation, financial Indicators financial indicators measure an economy; they do not affect it. , demand and output, external indicators have to be stabilized and powered up No, the economy must be managed.. Consolidation plan to compromise government expenditure I don’t know what this means.  and other expenses are also mentioned here:

Boosting productivity and bringing more people, especially women, into employment as we can see from the findings of IMF. Higher employment rates would benefit social cohesion and reduce Japan’s high poverty rate. Faster growth will help the country to bring a stop to public debt. Implementation of a credible consolidation plan such as consumption tax rate will enhance and sustain confidence in Japan’s public finances which in turn slow the rise in public social spending since this is the half of government expenditures. More care and dedication to education and training are required to increase Japan’s growth potential. Limiting the negative impact of higher taxes on growth requires relying primarily on the consumption tax for increased revenue, accompanied by an earned income tax credit to promote employment and social cohesion. Policies such as “yield curve control” which provides flexibility in bond purchases and short-term interest rates and “inflation-overshooting commitment” focused on expanding the monetary base until consumer price inflation should be continued until the commitment towards required inflation is achieved (2019. OECD)

 Getting the clear idea, the big picture “Macro” is the highest challenge of a developing economy when there are hard times. Knowing the factors affecting the economy and arranging the priorities help to tackle and overcome these situations.

            This draft mostly consists of a listing of factors that will affect the Japanese economy, but it does not demonstrate an understanding of what each factor is and how it operates.  The paper must use apply the theory developed in Arnold to analyze the topic.  Arnold isn’t cited, so it seems there has been no attempt to apply the relevant theory.  Without the application of theory, the paper will not be satisfactory.

            As I noted in the topic submission, using the Fitch reports as the primary references for your paper is not helpful.  These reports are highly technical designed written for professional investors.  This paper obviously draws heavily on these reports, but the scope is too great for you to explain.   The draft contains lots for impressive sounding economic and financial phrases but is mostly devoid of explanation.  It does not demonstrate that you understand what you written.   

            Unfortunately, you are on the wrong track here which leads to an unsatisfactory term paper.  At this point, I recommend that you greatly narrow the scope of the paper.  Choose either Japanese fiscal or monetary policy (two of the three arrows of Abenomics).  Discuss the goals of the selected policy and how it should work in theory.  You will need several articles on the topic from the financial press (not what you have cited for references).  Both the Wall Street Journal and The Economist cover the Japanese economy.  You can find what you need by a search of the ProQuest database.  These will provide the information and background you need as a foundation for the paper. 

Your paper must demonstrate that you understand and can employ the macroeconomic theory to analyze the Japanese economy.  If you have questions, I will be pleased to help. 

Term Paper Grade
Attribute Weight Score Points
Economic Theory/Analysis/Graphical 20% 0 0.0
Topic description & foundation 15% 40 6.0
Assessment/Analysis 15% 25 3.8
Reference Quality/Sufficiency 10% 50 5.0
Introduction/Conclusion 10% 50 5.0
Organization/Expression 10% 75 7.5
Grammar/Spelling/punctuation 10% 75 7.5
Citation/Format/ APA 10% 75 7.5
Total 100%   42.3

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