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Introduction to physical geography

Introduction to physical geography

PART 2: Soils, Groundwater, and Surface Water (30 marks)
Please answer the following questions.
You may wish to answer the following questions and quantitative problems in point form and use diagrams where appropriate. Avoid writing a simple précis or copying the glossary or textbook definitions; otherwise, your mark will be lower.
1. Infiltration capacities for three soils are given next. Express each of these capacities in centimetres (cm) per hour. (3 marks)
75 cm in 2 hours i._______________ cm per hour
400 mm in 300 minutes ii.______________ cm per hour
2.5 m in 10 hours iii.______________ cm per hour
2. In one short paragraph apiece, define and briefly discuss each of the following components of the soil-water balance:
a) Water surplus (3 marks)
b) Storage withdrawal (3 marks)
c) Soil moisture storage (3 marks)
d) Soil-water recharge (3 marks)
3. In one short paragraph apiece, define each of the following components of the groundwater subsystem:
a) Hydraulic head (3 marks)
b) Transmission (3 marks)
c) Artesian flow (3 marks)
d) Overland flow (3 marks)
e) Drainage basin (3 marks)
PART 3: Quantitative Exercise I—Soil-Water Budgets (20 marks)
4. For this question, you will graph and interpret soil-water budget data for the following two stations in different parts of British Columbia. Before you attempt this question, review the sections on soil-water budgets and surface water in British Columbia in Unit 6. In particular, re-examine Tables 6.1 to 6.3 and Figure 6.16 in Unit 6.
a) Using the raw data provided for P, Ea, Ep, and T for each month and a value of S for January only, calculate monthly values for G, R, D, and S, and complete the soil-water budget tables for the following stations:
i. Hedley, in the Similkameen Valley of southern British Columbia (Assignment Table 4.1) (5 marks)
ii. Comox, on eastern Vancouver Island (Assignment Table 4.2) (5 marks)
b) Using the tables you have just completed, construct soil-water budget graphs for both stations. Write a brief interpretation of both graphs (no more than 250 words). Be careful how you deal with G (+G, -G), R, and S for the winter and early spring. (10 marks)
c) Submit your completed tables, soil-water budget graphs, and the integrations.

Assignment Table 4.1: Soil-water budget data for Hedley, BC (P, Ea, Ep, and S values in cm, T in degrees C)
P = Ea -G +G +R Ep D S T
January 3.1 0.0 0.0 11.3 –5.3
February 2.4 0.0 0.0 –0.7
March 1.5 1.4 1.4 3.4
April 1.4 2.7 4.4 8.3
May 2.7 4.8 8.2 13.0
June 3.1 5.5 11.0 16.7
July 2.2 4.8 13.5 19.9
August 2.0 3.5 11.9 19.0
September 2.2 2.8 7.4 14.6
October 2.2 2.4 3.6 8.1
November 2.7 0.5 0.5 1.1
December 2.9 0.0 0.0 –2.8
Total 28.4 28.4 61.9 Mean 7.9

Assignment Table 4.2: Soil-water budget data for Comox, BC (P, Ea, Ep, and S values in cm, T in degrees C)
P = Ea -G +G +R Ep D S T
January 17.6 0.4 0.4 30.0 2.2
February 12.6 1.2 1.2 4.0
March 9.7 2.1 2.1 5.0
April 5.8 4.4 4.4 8.0
May 3.5 7.7 8.0 11.8
June 3.6 8.5 9.8 15.0
July 2.8 8.1 11.5 17.4
August 3.2 6.6 10.5 17.0
September 4.3 5.4 7.1 13.7
October 11.3 4.0 4.0 9.2
November 20.1 2.0 2.0 5.3
December 17.8 1.1 1.1 3.5
Total 112.3 51.5 62.1 Mean 9.4

PART 4: Quantitative Exercise II—Stream Discharge (20 marks)
5. For this question, graph and then interpret stream discharge data for the following two stations in different parts of British Columbia. Mean, maximum, and minimum stream discharge data (in m3 per second) are provided for the Similkameen River at Hedley (Assignment Table 4.3) and the Oyster River near Comox (Assignment Table 4.4). Choose the scale of your vertical axes carefully so that your graphs clearly show the seasonal differences in discharge.
a) Construct a hydrograph for the Similkameen River at Hedley. (5 marks)
b) Construct a hydrograph for the Oyster River near Comox. (5 marks)

Assignment Table 4.3: Monthly mean, maximum, and minimum discharge for the Similkameen River at Hedley, BC (values in m3 per second)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean 4.4 5.0 6.7 57.4 153.0 106.0 29.2 8.6 5.9 10.7 16.4 11.6
Max. 5.4 6.4 8.0 127.0 413.0 162.0 54.5 13.2 9.7 31.4 46.0 21.1
Min. 2.8 2.4 5.7 7.2 60.0 53.2 12.3 5.4 4.5 5.5 9.8 5.0

Assignment Table 4.4: Monthly mean, maximum, and minimum discharge for the Oyster River, BC, at its mouth (values in m3 per second)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean 8.2 9.6 10.9 20.4 23.7 18.9 9.0 3.6 2.0 3.2 18.5 15.6
Max. 25.8 25.4 19.2 41.1 47.0 33.4 12.2 5.2 2.7 8.2 70.0 43.2
Min. 2.7 3.4 6.0 9.3 12.6 10.6 5.4 2.6 1.5 1.7 7.8 4.9

c) Write a short interpretation of each hydrograph (150–200 words or one page for each hydrograph), and focus on: (5 marks)
· Explaining the annual trends in discharge.
· Commenting on the differences between mean, maximum, and minimum discharge.
· Comparing the two hydrographs for differences and similarities.
d) Comment on any relationship that you can discern between the annual soil-water budgets of Hedley and Comox (Part 3) and the hydrograph for each of the two stations. This part of your answer should be no longer than 150 to 200 words. You may reference key differences between climates. (5 marks)
e) Submit both hydrographs, and your interpretations and commentaries on the relationship between the hydrographs and the soil-water budgets.
PART 5: Review of Units 5 and 6 (20 marks)
Answer one of the following questions.
6. Explain, with examples, how air mass characteristics and source regions can be used for classification of climates. Your answer should be about 500 words.
(20 marks)
This is the end of Assignment 4. If you are following a 15-week schedule, you should submit this assignment no later than the end of Week 10.

An absolute of four surface h2o trial samples were obtained. The ways employed for sample, storing and transport of trial samples are described in Ref. 8.5. H2o samples had been accumulated in a range of .2 to .5 m manually in disposable plastic boxes and window containers. Air heat and h2o lucidity was calculated. In addition, aesthetic observations of colour, smell, turbidity, and preference had been produced. Immediately following sample, the pH and dissolved fresh air information were actually determined. Trial samples have been positioned in boxes, stored frosty (temperatures 2 to 5°C) and transported to the laboratory. An absolute of four supply bed free samples have been gathered in the very same areas as being the area water quality free samples. The techniques utilized for sample, safe-keeping and transportation of samples are defined in Ref. 8.5. The sediments had been sampled from the degree to 5 cm. During selection, smell, consistency, appearance of motion pictures, oil stains, almost any inclusions, and organic articles were noted. Free samples were placed into boxes, held chilly (temperature 2 to 5°C) and shipped to the lab. The available garden soil, drinking water and sediment details are ample to inform the standard of your study in buy to look for the likelihood of influences and perform the analysis. The next restrictions relate to the standard dataset: • Earth sampling had not been carried out in the positioning of the landfall center, or along section of the pipeline option next to the landfall center. Given the greenfield the outdoors from the place the present details can be extrapolated with affordable confidence. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended that additional garden soil sampling be carried out to characterise the caliber of these soils • Groundwater and surface h2o top quality was sampled in one event. Nevertheless, groundwater and area drinking water quality might be subjected to changes as well as a single sample function may not be fully representative of long-term h2o high quality habits. Guidelines for example stopped solids and dissolved o2 can vary greatly naturally responding to circulate rates and following rain fall events. Specifically, area h2o and stream mattress keeping track of must be performed upstream and downstream of the surface area drinking water crossingGroundwater was sampled from springs as an alternative to boreholes. There is certainly anxiety with regards to if the groundwater emerges in the alluvial or bedrock aquifers • It absolutely was not considered necessary to build a hydrological style of water catchment for the Task. The Project landfall section is located with the Pasha Dere valley. Given the topography of the valley and typical steepness of ephemeral (i.e. only flowing periodically and dry the rest of the time) channels, and based on professional judgement, it is considered that the above-ground landfall facilities proposed would likely be above the 50 year average recurrence interval (ARI) flood extent for the catchment. The flooding of the landfall facilities is therefore not considered further; and • Soil, sediment and water samples have not been taken from the marshalling yards. Given the port location of the yards this is not considered to be a limitation as the soils are expected to be anthropogenic, and the waters of similar quality to the estuarine waters.