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In the spring and summer of 2020, dramatic social unrest emerged around the topic of racism. What evidence is there that people of colour are disadvantaged? Given the evidence, should changes be made in the world? If yes, what changes should be made?

Type of Paper: This is a research paper, not an opinion essay. The purpose is to give you experience in writing and researching a sociological paper. Your job is to display the available evidence, cite it properly, and make your conclusions based on that evidence. It must have a clear thesis statement in the introduction.

Feedback: A link to your marked grading rubric with comments will appear in the Paper section once your mark has been released. It will be in the bottom, right-hand side, and will be a file with your name on it. There will also be comments made directly on your paper

Content:

All information must be properly cited in APA format. The paper will include information from:

 

  • AT LEAST three additional peer-reviewed, academic journal articles must be used as a source (from UOIT library website). To find these, go to https://ontario.ca/sites/library/, type your search terms into the Omni search engine, and download full text of articles you find (you may need to enter your student number and password if not on campus).
  • Your textbook May be used but is not required

 

  • You MAY use government websites, news, or magazine articles only if the information used is not already available in peer-reviewed journals and you must have already used your minimum number of peer-reviewed journals.
  • Lecture notes are NOT acceptable as a source.
  • There is a marking rubric at the end of this document. This rubric must be copied and pasted to your paper after the bibliography. If you fail to do so, you will lose 2 points and will not receive an overall paper evaluation with comments – you will receive just a mark.

 

Mandatory Guidelines:

  • Style: May be written in either first or third person depending on student’s preference
  • Title Page: Must contain a title, professor’s name, date, and course code.
  • Page Numbering: All pages must be numbered EXCEPT the title page – the page with your intro paragraph will be page #1. (in Word, start page numbering at 0 and suppress page numbers on the title page to do this). Numbers may appear anywhere on pages as students desires.
  • Intro Paragraph: Must have an introductory paragraph which contains the following elements, in ANY ODER that you feel comfortable with:
    1. The sell: A sentence or two that convinces the reader that the paper is addressing and important topic (i.e. make the reader care about your paper). Example: “poverty rates, as baker (2011) has shown, are rising dramatically in Canada, it is important, then, to explore the causes of poverty in this country.”
    2. Topic Statement: A statement about WHAT your paper will explore: Example: “This paper will explore the causes of poverty in Canada”.
    3. Theses Statement: A strong stance that you will be arguing with regards to the topic – often contains the word “THAT.” Example: “I will ague THAT poverty in Canada is caused by a lack of opportunity available to those with lower incomes” (Yes, you will be giving away the ending of your paper here).
    4. An Outline: A very brief (one or two sentence) explanation of the form that your argument will take in the paper. Example: “In the first part of the paper, current thinking about [the topic] will be explained; this will be followed by a critical reflection on the issue”.
    5. IMPORTANT: Be concise. A good introductory paragraph should be between ½ and ¾ of a double-spaced page and must NEVER exceed one page in length.

 

  • Body Paragraphs: A paper this size should contain 4-8 body paragraphs that are approximately ½ to ¾ of a page in length. If you are writing a paragraph that exceeds one page, you should break it down into two separate paragraphs.
  • Topic Sentences: Each body paragraph should have a clear topic sentence (usually the first sentence) that relates directly to every other sentence in the paragraph. It is like either a thesis or topic statement for just that paragraph. It may not have to be cited if it is just your indication of the content of the paragraph to follow.
  • APA In-Text Citation: Cite properly, according to APA guidelines ALL INFORMATION YOU WERE NOT BORN KNOWING. You must cite information whether is in your own words, or is a direct quotation. Examples of APA in-text Citation are here: https://guides.library.uoit.ca/ld.php?content_id=4715041

 

Everything must be cited except:

  1. Your topic sentence: Since this is just a statement of what you want to explore. You also may not need to cite topic sentences of each paragraph if they are just your indication of the content of the paragraph to follow (you will have to use your common sense to decide when a topic sentence needs a citation and when it doesn’t)..
  2. Your thesis sentence: Since this is by definition YOUR FINDING after critically considering all information..
  3. Your Conclusion: The conclusion paragraph should be a summary of your entire paper and especially your findings. NO NEW INFORMATION should appear. Therefore there should be no need to cite anything. It is your own very concise summation of the issue.
  • Conclusion: All papers should have a short concluding/summary paragraph in which you (in any order you like):
    1. Re-state your thesis
    2. Summarize the main arguments
    3. This should be little more than a summary of information and findings that you have already presented. Somebody should be able to read it without reading the rest of the paper, and know the main points you made.
    4. Keep it very short – including only the most important information.
  • List of References: All papers must contain a proper APA-format list of References. Examples of a proper APA reference list are Here: https://guides.library.uoit.ca/ld.php?content_id=4715041
  • Overall Outline: Given the information above, the paper should roughly follow this outline (the number of paragraphs for the body sections are up to the discretion of the student):
    1. Title page
    2. Introductory paragraph
    3. 4-8 body paragraphs
    4. Concluding/summary paragraph

Proper APA Reference Page.

SAMPLE

Racism and Discrimination of People of Color in the USA

Recent developments have seen a surge in discrimination cases of black, in different parts of the world, specifically in the United States of America. According to the 2019 Center survey, more than 84% of blacks reported that they have been treated unfairly by the police, while 87% of blacks and 64% of whites agreed that the US Justice System treats the blacks less fairly (Desilver, Lipka & Fahmy, 2020). These findings justify the need to investigate whether the black are disadvantaged in various spheres within the economy. While exploring the issue of racism in the USA, the current paper discusses the extent through which people of color are disadvantaged or treated unfairly within the society.  The increasing cases of police brutality on blacks and minority groups, limited access to medical services, and unfair treatment within the workforce is a clear indication that people of color are disadvantaged. This paper argues that unless a conscious decision is made to stop white supremacy, and vilification of blacks in all spheres, the issue of blacks’ discrimination and prejudice is likely to remain pervasive in America.

The paper begins with a discussion of the issue of racism in the USA, followed by the provision of evidence to justify that the blacks and other minority people are disadvantaged in the region. Lastly, a discussion of the changes that need to be implemented to address the issues is presented.

Racism and Discrimination of Blacks in the USA

The black people and minority communities including Hispanics have continually been treated unfairly in the United States of America. Even with the abolition of slavery, more than 150 years ago, the country has not made much progress towards racial equality (Horowitz, Brown & Cox, 2019). There is much skepticism on whether blacks will have equal rights to those of whites in the region. About 58% of Americans have reported that race relations in the region are bad and are likely to worsen in the future (Hoskin, 2020). The findings from a survey by Pew Research Center indicates that blacks, far more than whites receive unfair treatment in different life realms such as the acquisition of employment, police treatment, and access to various facilities such as loans, mortgage, education, and health care services (Desilver, Lipka & Fahmy, 2020). For a long time now, the possibility of experiencing racial equality has remained an elusive goal for many blacks in America.

The discrimination of blacks has been evidently witnessed in their acquisition of employment and in their management within the workplace. According to Horowitz, Brown, and Cox (2019), blacks are disadvantaged when it comes to access to employment opportunities. The research done by Pew Research Center on racial inequality indicates that more than 80% of Americans believe that being white is an added advantage in the society, especially for those seeking for employment (Horowitz, Brown & Cox, 2019). The report also showed that blacks and other minority groups such as Hispanics are disadvantaged not only in getting jobs but also in enhancing their ability to grow and move ahead in their career. Further surveys have also indicated that blacks have limited access to employment benefits including rewards, loans, and leave programs (Horowitz, Brown & Cox, 2019). It is thus observed that blacks have been continually been discerned in their places of work.

Significant inequality in access to essential services such as health care and education have also been reported amongst the black in the USA. According to Boutwell et al (2017) people of color including Africans and African Americans were educated in segregated schools that offer limited education services in relation to the schools serving whites. As much as there were attempts to end segregation in the subsequent years, such changes were never reported. As Grinstein-Weiss et al (2016) assert the educational experiences have been substantially unequal and separate for the black and minority students. It is reported that about 75% of black and minority students will attend schools that are predominantly for the minority communities and are mostly located in the central cities (Grinstein-Weiss et al., 2016). In a recent data done on school finance cases in New Jersey, Alabama, New York, Texas, and Louisiana, shows that tangible resources needed in schools, such as qualified teachers and a comprehensive curriculum largely differs in schools serving a higher number of students with color, than schools hosting mostly white students. Inequitable access to education services and resources reported inflicting disproportionate damage on the black students, disadvantaging them economically.

Discrimination of blacks is also evident in the access and provision of health care. In a focus group discussion for a study that sought to explore the issue of racial disparities in health care, it was reported that substantial discrimination exists in the provision of health care (Grady & Edgar, 2003). More than 85% of the participants involved in the study asserted that their race acted as a predicating factor in the quality of health care they received, in case they obtain any medical treatment (Grady & Edgar, 2003). The black participants reported that they are normally treated differently by health care practitioners who often assume that they are poor, less educated or deserved less respect because of their race. A significant number of black patients are thus likely to receive poor quality health or fail to access the same than the whites.

Blacks in America are also more susceptible to police brutality and unfair access to the justice system. According to Hoskin (2020) increasing cases of police brutality mostly targeting the blacks have been reported in America indicating the existence of racial discrimination in law enforcement. The fact that most of these cases are not met with satisfactory legal address further justify the discrimination of blacks and their unfair treatment when it comes to getting justice (Shakour & Hillyer, 2020). Most recent cases of police brutality were evident in the news of the murder of Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, and George Floyd (Newman-Bremang, 2020). According to Newman-Bremang (2020), Arbery was fatally shot while undertaking his routine jogging by a white, who associated with a robber. As much as the victim, McMichaels was arrested and charged with murder, the hate and discrimination of the blacks by the whites in the region become more evident (Newman-Bremang, 2020). The death of George Floyd after being handcuffed and held down by a wedging knee is a further indication of police brutality against blacks. The three names mentioned above are just but examples of blacks who have been subjected to the brutality of the police in America. According to Hoskin (2020), 24% of individuals killed by police in the year 2019 were blacks, unarmed black men, further justifying the unfair treatment of the people with color by the police in the USA.

Proposed Changes

Ending racism and discrimination requires that a conscious decision is made both at an individual and a community level to stop the menace. Changing the world and individual views about self and treat everyone fairly and equally is the initial step towards reducing the incidences of racism (Shakour & Hillyer, 2020). Currently, white supremacy is observed in almost all spheres within the society, and there is a belief that whites are more sovereign than the blacks in their places of work or any social places where blacks and whites interact. There is a need to blur the concept of self and treat people equally regardless of their skin color.

At the community level, changes should be made to oppose the current ideologies of racism. For instance, the vilification of the dark skin and barring blacks from accessing essential services within America should be opposed. This can be achieved by incorporating policies to ensure admission offices in schools, hospitals, and public service corporations do not discriminate against people based on their color and race (Shakour & Hillyer, 2020). There is a need for the community to continually support the minority and oppressed groups who are overly underrepresented in nearly all areas of public life.

Conclusion

Racial discrimination and unfair treatment of blacks are evident in nearly all areas of interaction between blacks and whites in America, presenting the people of color as highly disadvantaged in the region. Cases of unfair treatment of blacks have been reported in schools and in their attempt to seek medical services. Also, blacks have been subjected to unfair treatment by the police and the inability to get justice as their white counterparts. While the issue of racism and discrimination has negatively affected the quality of life of blacks,  a conscious decision made both at an individual and community level to change the current situation can assist in curbing the racism pandemic. Individuals should abolish the belief of white supremacy and move towards a belief in racial equality. Also, the community and the government should implement policies to ensure individuals are treated equally and fairly in all areas of public life.