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Heart Murmur

Consider the following scenario:

A 16-year-old male presents for a sports participation examination. He has no significant medical history and no family history suggestive of risk for premature cardiac death. The patient is examined while sitting slightly recumbent on the exam table and the advanced practice nurse appreciates a grade II/VI systolic murmur heard loudest at the apex of the heart. Other physical findings are within normal limits, the patient denies any cardiovascular symptoms, and a neuromuscular examination is within normal limits. He is cleared with no activity restriction. Later in the season he collapses on the field and dies.

Examine Pathophysiology of Heart Murmur
Diagnosis and Treatment of heart Murmur
Explain how the Genetics, Behavior AND Ethnicity might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for the patient with heart murmur.

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