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Habitat Reduction and Loss of Bio-diversity.

Habitat Reduction and Loss of Bio-diversity

Species extinction – causes, ecological impacts and human health
Explain the chain of events that links the extinction of a species and the health of populations. Use examples to illustrate your answer.
In your answer you should consider:
the cause of extinction
impact of the extinction on the ecosystem
how the impact on the ecosystem impacts on human health.

People rely on technology to modify their environment and change particular functions which were once performed by natural ecosystem. Other species cannot do this. Elimination of their ecosystem – whether it is a forest, a desert, a grassland, a freshwater estuary, or a marine environment – will kill the individuals within most species. Remove the entire habitat within the range of a species and, unless they are one of the few species that do well in human-built environments, the species will become extinct.

Negative effects of Habitat Decrease on Biodiversity Habitat loss is really a procedure of enviromentally friendly alter where a normal environment is rendered functionally not able to keep the kinds present. This process may be natural or unnatural, and may be caused by habitat fragmentation, geological processes, climate change, or human activities such as the introduction of invasive species or ecosystem nutrient depletion. In the process of habitat destruction, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.

Human being destruction of environments has accelerated greatly within the latter 50 % of the twentieth century. Natural habitats are often destroyed through human activity for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture, for example, is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide.

Consider the excellent biodiversity of Sumatra. It is home to one sub-species of orangutan, a species of critically endangered elephant, and the Sumatran tiger; however half of Sumatra’s forest is now gone. The neighboring island of Borneo, home to the other sub-species of orangutan, has lost a similar area of forest, and forest loss continues in protected areas. The orangutan in Borneo is listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but it is simply the most visible of thousands of species that will not survive the disappearance of the forests of Borneo. The forests are being removed for their timber, and to clear space for plantations of palm oil, an oil used in Europe for many items including food products, cosmetics, and biodiesel.

A five-period estimation of international woodland take care of decrease to the a long period 2000–2005 was 3.1 percent. In the humid tropics where forest loss is primarily from timber extraction, 272,000 km2 was lost out of a global total of 11,564,000 km2 (or 2.4 percent). In the tropics, these losses also represent the extinction of species because of high levels of endemism.

Given that the Neolithic Craze, about 47Percent in the world’s jungles are actually misplaced to person use. Present-day forests occupy about a quarter of the world’s ice-free land, with about half of these occurring in the tropics. In temperate and boreal regions, forest area is gradually increasing (with the exception of Siberia), but deforestation in the tropics is of major concern. Feeding more than seven billion human bodies takes a heavy toll on the earth’s resources. This begins with the appropriation of about 38 percent of the earth’s land surface and about 20 percent of its net primary productivity. Added to this are the resource-hungry activities of industrial agribusiness: everything from crops’ need for irrigation water, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides, to the resource costs of food packaging, transport (now a major part of global trade), and retail.

Sustainability is actually a strategy that identifies how biological systems stay different and fruitful after a while. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well-being, which has ecological, economic, political, and cultural dimensions. Sustainability requires the reconciliation of environmental, social, and economic demands, which are also referred to as the “three pillars” of sustainability.

Healthy ecosystems and situations are important to the success and growing of humans along with other microorganisms, and there are many of methods to lessen humans’ unfavorable affect on the planet. One approach is environmental management, which is based largely on information gained from earth science, environmental science, and conservation biology. A second approach is management of human consumption of resources, which is based largely on information gained from economics. A third, more recent, approach adds cultural and political concerns into the sustainability matrix.

Deficiency of biodiversity stalks largely within the environment reduction and fragmentation manufactured by human being appropriation of terrain for advancement, forestry and agriculture as all-normal dollars is progressively altered into man-made funds. At the local human scale, sustainability benefits accrue from the creation of green cities and sustainable parks and gardens. Similarly, environmental problems associated with industrial agriculture and agribusiness are now being addressed through such movements as sustainable agriculture, organic farming, and more-sustainable business practices. Overharvesting, also called overexploitation, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Ecologists use the term to describe populations that are harvested at a rate that is unsustainable, given their natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction. The term applies to natural resources such as wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, game animals, fish stocks, forests, and water aquifers. Sustained overharvesting can lead to the destruction of the resource, and is one of the five main activities – along with pollution, introduced species, habitat fragmentation, and habitat destruction – that threaten global biodiversity today.

All residing bacteria call for resources to have. Overharvesting these resources for extended periods of time can deplete natural resources to the point where they are unable to recover within a short time frame. Humans have always harvested food and other resources they have needed to survive; however, human populations, historically, were small and methods of collection limited to small quantities. Exponential increase in human population, expanding markets, and increasing demand, combined with improved access and techniques for capture, are causing the exploitation of many species beyond sustainable levels. Overharvesting not only threatens the resource being harvested, but can directly impact humans as well – for example by decreasing the biodiversity necessary for medicinal resources. A significant proportion of drugs and medicines are natural products which are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources. However, unregulated and inappropriate harvesting could potentially lead to overexploitation, ecosystem degradation, and loss of biodiversity; further, it can negatively impact the rights of the communities and states from which the resources are taken.