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Global Middle Eastern Studies

1. Race has been defined in many confusing and contradictory ways over time. While defined as an essential and
biological trait related to skin color and phenotype in the modern era, such physical characteristics were conceived of
quite differently in earlier periods even as they were often organized hierarchically. More recently, race has come to be
understood as a social construction, while scholars and activists often talk of racialization as a process through which
those with power attempt to fix, hierarchies and control various communities based on perceived unchanging and
essential attributes.

Explain how the understanding is experience of race has changed from the medieval Muslim world to the present day,
how race and power have intersected, and how colonialism and both Euro-American and Post colonial states have
racialized the communities under their control in ways that continue to disempower those themed outside the core
group. In this essay, please include a discussion of how other kinds ofidentity, including religion, nationality, ethnicity,
tribe and gender can also be effectively racialized and how they’re intersection makes the process even more
powerfully marginalizing.

USE THESE SOURCES FOR THE QUESTIONS ABOVE, THEY ARE ALSO UPLOADED
https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/05/what-we-mean-when-we-say-race-is-a-social-construct/275872/
Balwin
Heng