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Female Archetypes in 21st century Young Adult Literature

This paper should have a touch of feminism analysis along with Jung and the Jungian theorists research on archetypal figures


Identification of factors that lead people to use systems developed and implemented by others is a continuing issue over decades which resulted to formulation of theories and approaches, put across to address the problem. The prototyping, and user-analyst co-operation approaches were used so as to avoid user reluctance to the use of Information Systems (IS) developed specifically for their use in organizations and other applicable areas. Most of these systems technically meet the user requirements standards but still are not universally used or understood. Several other models are proposed in order to solve the problem including the Technology Application Model (TAM) developed by (Davis, 1989), to explain potential user’s   behavioral intention to use a technological invention. TAM is based on the Reasoned Action Theory (RAT) which is a psychological theory that seeks to explain behavior. The theories are more explained with their application in the adoption of Information Technology by organizations as discussed below.

Besides the laboratory findings, different scholars have also explored the determinants of endurance race performance from the field setting. Factors such as fitness of an individual have been assessed and its relationship with success in different races attained. Specifically, it is reported that upper-body fitness is a vital determinant in the performance of cross-country runners. The aerobic power and the strength of the upper-body were essential in any endurance race (Nicholas et al 1379). An enhanced aerobic body power was associated with consistent endurance training which is considered a major pre-requisite for any individual that desires to perform better in long-distance races. The development of a power aerobic upper body is thus associated with an enhanced performance in the marathon races.

Apart from the quantitative determinants of endurance races performance, other qualitative aspects have also been employed in explaining the outcome of the races. Gender and races have been used to explain the difference in the performance of the two distinct groups. Focusing on gender, men have been reported to perform better in long races than women. Even though most competitions executed across the world are designed for specific genders, research involving mixed genders have reported higher speed and enhanced completion rates amongst the male gender. The high performance amongst the male gender is attributed to their high performance in maximal oxygen consumption and the running distance at their anaerobic threshold. At the international arena, it is reported that most women taking part in the marathon races have maximum oxygen uptake of about 60-79 ml/kg/min. The value is higher for men and is reported at 70-87 ml/kg/min (Richard 17), explaining their high performance in the marathon races.

From a different perspective, Nicholas et al argues that the uptake and utilization of oxygen is the major determinant of performance in marathon races. As much as men may repot a higher value, it cannot be argued that all men will perform better than women in long-distance races; rather, the value of maximum oxygen consumption exhibited by an individual influence their level of performance. This argument is only relevant when focusing on a mixed population consisting both of athletes and non-athletes. However, when targeting an athlete audience, who have undergone an endurance training sessions, the argument that men are will perform better than woman in the marathon races suffices. This is justified by the fact that they have registered a higher value of maximal oxygen uptake overtime.

Mixed findings have been presented on the influence of race on the performance of marathon athletes. International records show that athletes from different African nations perform better in long-distance races than those from other nations across the world (Franjo 31). Weston et al analyzed and compared the performance and completion rate of runners from East Africa with those from Europe. The researcher focused on determining their average oxygen uptake at a given running speed to gauge their expected performance (Richard 19). The study findings showed no major difference in the value of their maximal oxygen consumption. A further research conducted to explain the difference in the performance between blacks and the Europeans took a different approach and focused on analyzing the running economy between the Spanish and athletes from Eritrea. The outcome of the study showed a significant different in their running economy justifying the difference in performance between the two groups of athletes as reported in the international competitive arena.

The dominance of the Black in the top positions in marathon races, have instigated significant changes in athletes. The emergence of the concept of “black athletes” was as a result of the high performance reported by the blacks in the foreign nations (Franjo 29). The success of Africans and black immigrants in the foreign nations was seen as an initial step towards the attainment of supremacy in athletes. According to Carrington the notion of “black athlete” was made as a result of colonial fantasies about Africans and their perceived inferiority and weakness (Franjo 30). In essence, the involvement and success of blacks in athletics specifically long-distance races is attributed to significant oversight from well-trained white and blacks. It is observed that blacks are incapable of registering a higher level of performance by just natural ability without any training. This explains why most Africans take up top positions in international long-distance races, though the number of blacks being involved in the sport is lower than other races. A higher performance in marathon races can only be achieved through extensive and continuous endurance training.