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Ethnolinguistics studies

Ethnolinguistics studies

1, Ethnolinguistics studies “the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other” (Haviland et al., 122). Using the three examples of (1) gender differences in language use, (2) Ebonics, and (3) code switching, describe the contributions of ethnolinguistics to our understanding of human communication.

2, Describe the different views of Native American and Euro-American culture on the intersexed child, or “two-spirit.” How have anthropologists in their studies of culture and personality contributed to our understanding of gender roles and personality development?

Among the disciplines studying the discussion of vocabulary and tradition are sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics, linguistic and ethnic reports, cultural linguistics. Cultural linguistics is really a philological willpower that represents the correspondence of language and customs within their synchronous discussion. The word “cultural linguistics” obviously indicates the interrelation between two career fields – linguistics and ethnic research. It is also a branch of intellectual linguistics and ethnic research, understanding the manifestation of your people’s tradition that has been taken and entrenched within the language. While intellectual linguistics seeks at addressing the query of how in general a persons mind is structured, the way a individual looks at the entire world and what specifics of the globe will become understanding, ethnic linguistics focuses primarily over a individual in the tradition and his language. Cultural linguistics reports and identifies the means and techniques of connections of vocabulary and culture it really is targeted at the study of just how the kinds of presence of tradition of diverse cultural groupings are demonstrated and set in language. How exactly does someone view the world? – That is the principal issue to become clarified by ethnic linguistics, which research words like a societal trend. It is a specific sight on the planet from the prism of the national vocabulary whilst the language is the exponent of any specific mindset (Maslova, 2001). The principle subject of ethnic linguistics may be the connection and connections of traditions and language throughout its operating and the study of the handling of the connection, being a single system integrity. The most important job of cultural linguistics along with its quality characteristic is definitely the systematic representation of your tradition of individuals within their words, inside their dialectical discussion and improvement. Societal linguistics is closely linked to another cognitive region – ethnolinguistics. The primary difference in those two locations, experts see inside the thing of research. In the center of ethnolinguistics are merely those elements of the lexical program of terminology, which correlated with particular fabric or societal and historical buildings. It needs to be mentioned that ethnolinguistics is much “older” than societal linguistics and it is rooted in American scientific research to von Humboldt, E. Sapir, B. Whorf, and also in Russian technology – for the research of the.A. Shakhmatov, A.A. Potebnya and other folks. Societal linguistics and ethnolinguistics unite on the basis of popular goals: to examine the interaction of two distinct regulations – words and customs. Ethnolinguistics, as well as cultural linguistics, is a complex science, but ethnolinguistics studies the interaction of linguistic, ethno-cultural and ethno-psychological factors in the functioning and development of the language. Widely developed in the American linguistic environment in connection with the study of native peoples of America, in the center of attention of ethnolinguistics there are such issues as the study of genetic relationship of the peoples, language contact, multilingualism and the problems of reconstruction of the spiritual and material culture on the basis of linguistic data. Russian theory of ethnolinguistics belongs to N. I. Tolstoy and his followers; in the development of methodological apparatus they were guided by the possibilities of both disciplines – ethnology and linguistics. For example, the method of retrospection, which involves sequential tracing of the origins of the basic elements of archaeological cultures is related by N.I. Tolstoy to glottogonic research in linguistics. According to Tolstoy (1989), the language and the “ethnic unit” attributed to it often play a crucial role in the archaeological ethno-genetic constructs. Sociolinguistics is also an adjacent to the cultural studies area of research that studies the principles and results of interaction between society and language: how language influences society and how society affects language. If we consider culture as a mandatory component of society, then it should be acknowledged that the interaction of language and culture indirectly comes within the competence of sociolinguistics, but compared to cultural linguistics, the cultural phenomenon is somewhat upstaged here. Description of interaction of language and culture as a complex problem requires the allocation of a special unit that would combine the two phenomena – language and culture. In recent decades, in the scientific literature for the designation of the unit of language and culture interaction was entrenched the term “concept”. The term was borrowed by Russian linguistics from English literature. One of the first definitions of the concept belongs to A. Wierzbicka: ‘concept is an object of the world ideal, having a name and reflecting certain culturally specified representation about the world reality’ (Frumkina, 1992). Most cited today is the definition of the concept by Yu.S. Stepanov, (2001) who describes it as a clot of culture in the human mind, something, in the form of what culture is included in his mental world, … a bunch of ideas, notions, knowledge, associations, which accompanies the word … a cultural-mental-language unit . The concept is also understood as a discrete unit of the collective consciousness, which is stored in the national memory of the speakers in the verbally indicated form (Babushkin, 2001). The existence of different definitions of the concept in modern linguistics is due primarily to the fact that it belongs to many sciences: philosophy, logic, semiotics, psychology and linguistics. The belonging of the concept to many disciplines leads to terminological synonymy. Some researchers understand the concept as a fundamentally new phenomenon; others are trying to replace the term by such terms as “word”, “notion”, “sense”, “meaning”, etc. 3.1. Concept and notion In contrast to many researchers Yu.S. Stepanov (2001) considers concept and notion as different entities. Unlike notions, concepts are not only conceived, they are experienced. They are the subject of emotions, likes and dislikes, and sometimes clashes. ‘Concept and notion are the terms of different sciences; the latter is used mainly in logic and philosophy, whereas the former, i.e. concept, is the term of mathematical logic, and recently has established itself as well in the science studying culture – cultural studies’ (Stepanov, 2001). Concept is a mental formation, which in the process of thinking replaces an indefinite number of items of the same sort. Some concepts can be considered as schematic representations. Notion is primarily a point of view on this or that plurality of representations, and then readiness for their mental processing from this point of view and it is a point of view where the commonness of notions is centered, as it may be extended for an indefinite number of specificities of this kind (Askol’dov, 1997). 3.2. Concept and meaning The terms “concept” and “meaning” are distinguished on the basis that concept is a unit of conceptual sphere, the information base of a man, while meaning is a unit of semantic space of language. Concept is defined as a phenomenon of the same order as the meaning of the word, but viewed in a somewhat different system of connections; meaning – in the language system, concept – in the system of logical relations and forms, studied both in linguistics and logic. The meanings of the items of language transfer only a part of the concept, as evidenced by the existence of numerous synonyms, different definitions and textual descriptions of one and the same concept. The meaning of the word is only an attempt to give a general idea about the content of the concept expressed, to define its scope. The main part of our knowledge of the world is kept in our mind as mental structures – concepts of varying degrees of complexity and abstraction, language meanings are capable of transmitting only a part of this knowledge. In addition, the content of the concept can continuously involve new features that will require new forms of verbalization (Boldyrev, 2001).