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Environmental science.

Environmental science.

Choose one of the following:
Air Quality- Many human activities result in air pollution, including emissions from vehicles and power plants, negatively impacting human health and economic efficiency. Scientists are analyzing policies to monitor and improve air quality since such regulations first came to pass. How else can we ensure that there will be clean air to breathe for generations to come?
Include each of the Sub-Topics: Clean Air Act, Clean Power Plan
Ecosystems- Healthy ecosystems are essential for the survival and success of countless species on Earth. Scientists are studying the dynamics of these natural systems to assess the benefits of protecting existing ecosystems or restoring those that have been disrupted by human activities or invasive species. What else can be done to preserve these delicate, critical ecosystems?
Include each of the Sub-Topics: Biodiversity, Endangered Species Act, Invasive Species, Ecosystem Services and Management, Fisheries and Fishing
Energy and Electricity- The beginning of the twenty-first century has seen rapid changes in the domestic and international energy landscape. In order to accommodate current and future challenges, scientists are analyzing policy options that balance growing electricity demands with the need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Will we be prepared to meet the energy demands of an ever-growing world population?
Include each of the Sub-Topics: Biomass and Plant Biofuels, Electricity Markets and Regulation, Energy Efficiency, Natural Gas, Offshore Drilling, Oil, Renewable and Clean Energy, Shale Gas
Forests- Forests are home to many invaluable ecosystem goods and services as well as a source of wood products for economies around the world. Scientists are evaluating the effectiveness of forest management policies by accounting for the economic, social, and environmental goals of region-specific programs alongside program costs. Are we doing enough to protect our valuable forests?
Include each of the Sub-Topics: Deforestation, Forest Carbon, Timber and Forest Product Markets, Tree Biotechnology.

The interactions between humans in addition to their bodily environment are already extensively examined, as several man pursuits influence the surroundings. The environment is a coupling of the biotic (living organisms and microorganisms) and the abiotic (hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere).

Toxins is defined as the intro to the surroundings of materials harmful to mankind and also other living organisms. Pollutants are harmful solids, liquids, or gases produced in higher than usual concentrations that reduce the quality of our environment.

Human being activities come with an undesirable impact on the surroundings by polluting the water we beverage, the environment we inhale, and also the earth in which plant life increase. Although the industrial revolution was a great success in terms of technology, society, and the provision of multiple services, it also introduced the production of huge quantities of pollutants emitted into the air that are harmful to human health. Without any doubt, the global environmental pollution is considered an international public health issue with multiple facets. Social, economic, and legislative concerns and lifestyle habits are related to this major problem. Clearly, urbanization and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and upsetting proportions worldwide in our era. Anthropogenic air pollution is one of the biggest public health hazards worldwide, given that it accounts for about 9 million deaths per year (1).

Undoubtedly, each of the aforementioned are closely associated with climate change, and in the case of danger, the results may be extreme for humanity (2). Climate changes and the effects of global planetary warming seriously affect multiple ecosystems, causing problems such as food safety issues, ice and iceberg melting, animal extinction, and damage to plants (3, 4).

Air contamination has various wellness consequences. The health of susceptible and sensitive individuals can be impacted even on low air pollution days. Short-term exposure to air pollutants is closely related to COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high rates of hospitalization (a measurement of morbidity).

The long-term consequences related to air flow air pollution are constant bronchial asthma, pulmonary insufficiency, cardiac conditions, and cardio mortality. According to a Swedish cohort study, diabetes seems to be induced after long-term air pollution exposure (5). Moreover, air pollution seems to have various malign health effects in early human life, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal disorders (3), leading to infant mortality or chronic disease in adult age (6).

Nationwide studies have talked about the increased likelihood of morbidity and mortality (1). These studies were conducted in many places around the world and show a correlation between daily ranges of particulate matter (PM) concentration and daily mortality. Climate shifts and global planetary warming (3) could aggravate the situation. Besides, increased hospitalization (an index of morbidity) has been registered among the elderly and susceptible individuals for specific reasons. Fine and ultrafine particulate matter seems to be associated with more serious illnesses (6), as it can invade the deepest parts of the airways and more easily reach the bloodstream.

Air pollution mainly affects those living in large urban areas, where road emissions contribute the most to the degradation of air quality. There is also a danger of industrial accidents, where the spread of a toxic fog can be fatal to the populations of the surrounding areas. The dispersion of pollutants is determined by many parameters, most notably atmospheric stability and wind (6).

In establishing countries (7), the issue is more severe as a result of overpopulation and uncontrolled urbanization along with the growth of industrialization. This leads to poor air quality, especially in countries with social disparities and a lack of information on sustainable management of the environment. The use of fuels such as wood fuel or solid fuel for domestic needs due to low incomes exposes people to bad-quality, polluted air at home. It is of note that three billion people around the world are using the above sources of energy for their daily heating and cooking needs (8). In developing countries, the women of the household seem to carry the highest risk for disease development due to their longer duration exposure to the indoor air pollution (8, 9). Due to its fast industrial development and overpopulation, China is one of the Asian countries confronting serious air pollution problems (10, 11). The lung cancer mortality observed in China is associated with fine particles (12). As stated already, long-term exposure is associated with deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system (3, 5). However, it is interesting to note that cardiovascular diseases have mostly been observed in developed and high-income countries rather than in the developing low-income countries exposed highly to air pollution (13). Extreme air pollution is recorded in India, where the air quality reaches hazardous levels. New Delhi is one of the more polluted cities in India. Flights in and out of New Delhi International Airport are often canceled due to the reduced visibility associated with air pollution. Pollution is occurring both in urban and rural areas in India due to the fast industrialization, urbanization, and rise in use of motorcycle transportation. Nevertheless, biomass combustion associated with heating and cooking needs and practices is a major source of household air pollution in India and in Nepal (14, 15). There is spatial heterogeneity in India, as areas with diverse climatological conditions and population and education levels generate different indoor air qualities, with higher PM2.5 observed in North Indian states (557–601 μg/m3) compared to the Southern States (183–214 μg/m3) (16, 17). The cold climate of the North Indian areas may be the main reason for this, as longer periods at home and more heating are necessary compared to in the tropical climate of Southern India. Household air pollution in India is associated with major health effects, especially in women and young children, who stay indoors for longer periods. Chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD) and lung cancer are mostly observed in women, while acute lower respiratory disease is seen in young children under 5 years of age (18).

Accumulation of oxygen contamination, especially sulfur dioxide and cigarette smoke, hitting 1,500 mg/m3, resulted in an increase in the volume of fatalities (4,000 fatalities) in December 1952 in the uk and also in 1963 in Ny City (400 fatalities) (19). An association of pollution with mortality was reported on the basis of monitoring of outdoor pollution in six US metropolitan cities (20). In every case, it seems that mortality was closely related to the levels of fine, inhalable, and sulfate particles more than with the levels of total particulate pollution, aerosol acidity, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen dioxide (20).

In addition, extremely high amounts of toxins are noted in Mexico City and Rio de Janeiro, followed by Milan, Ankara, Melbourne, Tokyo, and Moscow (19).

In accordance with the scale of the community overall health influence, it is sure that different kinds of interventions should be taken into account. Success and effectiveness in controlling air pollution, specifically at the local level, have been reported. Adequate technological means are applied considering the source and the nature of the emission as well as its impact on health and the environment. The importance of point sources and non-point sources of air pollution control is reported by Schwela and Köth-Jahr (21). Without a doubt, a detailed emission inventory must record all sources in a given area. Beyond considering the above sources and their nature, topography and meteorology should also be considered, as stated previously. Assessment of the control policies and methods is often extrapolated from the local to the regional and then to the global scale. Air pollution may be dispersed and transported from one region to another area located far away. Air pollution management means the reduction to acceptable levels or possible elimination of air pollutants whose presence in the air affects our health or the environmental ecosystem. Private and governmental entities and authorities implement actions to ensure the air quality (22). Air quality standards and guidelines were adopted for the different pollutants by the WHO and EPA as a tool for the management of air quality (1, 23). These standards have to be compared to the emissions inventory standards by causal analysis and dispersion modeling in order to reveal the problematic areas (24). Inventories are generally based on a combination of direct measurements and emissions modeling.