Engineering Annotated Bibliography

Agathangelou, Anna M. “Bruno Latour and ecology politics: Poetics of failure and denial in IR.” Millennium 44.3 (2016): 321-347.

Agathangelou explain how the concept of Bruno Latour and ecology politics are failed and denied to be recognized by the International Relations (IR). She argues that IR did not take the work of Latour on Anthropocene serious, and thus it is important for IR to determine how effective is human Anthropocene with knowledge that political ecology is important factor of global change. Most of the engineering projects have been turned down politically as leaders considers Gaia factor without taking note of the Anthropocene which is currently taking place. Therefore, engineering should be combined with geopolitical to make it easy to address the nature on the global changes taking place on earth.

Boes, Tobias. “Beyond whole earth: Planetary mediation and the Anthropocene.” Environmental Humanities 5.1 (2014): 155-170.

Tobias Boes, a professor in University of Notre Dame, USA, wrote this article in the aim to explain how the human beings have impacted on the earth changes waiting for the earth to respond to the changes and remain as it used to be in the past; he refers this as “planetary mediation.” According to the author, the earth has a system that balance itself but the human beings have interfered with the system thus causing changes in the system. According to the article, the global climate change is a sign of the planetary mediation after the human impact. Therefore, the human beings are expected to acts on the planetary mediation to secure better future living in the earth. This calls for geo-engineering among other strategies, which can slow down the rate at which the human are affecting the earth system in negative manner. Although this might not promise to get back the system as it used to before, it will promise better future in the earth.

Davis, Heather, and Bruno Latour. “Diplomacy in the Face of Gaia.” Eds) Art in the Anthropocene: Encounters among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies (2015): 43-57.

This article was an interview where Heather Davis Interviewed Bruno Latour about the relationship between science and politics. In the article, Latour argues that it is hard to separate the science and politics although politics applies narratives in their argument while science use “that have been obtained through a long process involving lots of instruments and carried out by the whole institution Bruno Latour in conversation with Heather Davis45 of science with agents throughout the world.” Therefore, to trace back how the begin of life on earth, it requires both narratives and data which means that there is combination of both politics and science when solving out what is happening on the global changes. Currently there are a lot of geopolitics that are taking place when it comes to discussing about putting up a power plant for electricity production. For example, in today’s world, production of electricity using petroleum products has been reduced to reduce the global warming that is being experienced on the earth surface.

Galaz, Victor. “Geo-engineering, governance, and social-ecological systems: critical issues and joint research needs.” Ecology and Society 17.1 (2012).

Victor Galaz in this article explains how the engineering can taken as way to modify the climate of the earth. For past few decades, the human beings have been employing different methods to modify reduce the global warming which has affected the earth’s climates. Although engineering has been blamed to be one of the human activities that has affected the earth atmosphere negatively due to interference of the earth system, Galaz shows that engineers can come together and save the earth from global warming. Therefore, geo-engineering has been seen as potential method to rectify the global warming but due to political issues, it implementation has not been successful. Therefore, due to human Athropocene, the earth atmosphere is still deteriorating where has geo-engineering can help to change the situation.

Hamilton, Clive. “Human destiny in the Anthropocene.” The Anthropocene and the global environmental crisis. Routledge, 2015. 32-43.

Hamilton, in this article, argues that the nature of the earth has been influenced by human factors. Therefore, this means that the nature is no longer purely physical due to transition from one division to another. The author continues to argue that because the human have invaded the geology domain, the have the ability to make make decision and transform matter that affect the global changes. This means that currently, human beings are geological power and they are responsible of any physical, chemical or physical change that is being experienced on the earth. Taking this into consideration, the human being are able to consider how to produce effective electrical appliance that will cause little change on the climate of the earth thus reducing global warming.

Hamilton, Clive, et al. “Thinking the Anthropocene.” The Anthropocene and the global environmental crisis. Vol. 1. No. 13. ROUTLEDGE in association with GSE Research, 2015. 1-13.

The article explain how important it is to considered Anthropocene as one of the Geological Time Scale. Anthropocene, explain the current situation of the earth’s life, seem to be more important in the matter regarding changes taking place on the earth, and therefore should be taken as one of the official scale. The authors explain that Holocene scale take place about 10 thousand years ago and it global temperature scale seem to be already tampered with due to global change thus Anthropocene is suitable to replace Holocene. In engineering, some of the factors considered when constructing an electric power plant are changing due to global changes that have occurred since Ice Age. Therefore, the authors expected that the International Commission on Stratigraphy will accept to add Anthropocene as one of the official scale.

Latour, Bruno. “Waiting for Gaia: Composing the common world through arts and politics.” What Is Cosmopolitical Design? Design, Nature and the Built Environment. Routledge, 2017. 41-52.

In this article, Latour put up various questions that tries to differentiate the relationship between the future and the life at the beginning of the earth. He explains that currently, the earth is experience a change that was not expected in the future since the beginning. In this article, Latour goes on to explain that due to reliance of the past history of the earth, people are yet to believe that there is global warming and it is not easy to get the earth conditions where they were at the beginning. Therefore, this is a prove that there is global climate change yet the human beings are going on to make it worse regardless of the warning and prove of the scientist about the global change. The human beings are held up by believing that nature controls itself and human beings have little impact on it. This has led to rejection of geo-engineering application in reduction of the global warming.

Lovelock, James E., and Lynn Margulis. “Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis.” Tellus 26.1-2 (1974): 2-10.

The article explains the life of the present earth we have today. Written by scientist James Lovelock, from England and Lynn Margulis, from Department of Biology, Boston University, the article explains that there are chemical and physical changes that consider how life will continue to exist on earth. They argues that the atmosphere of the earth is controlled by life since the beginning. Therefore, when changes, chemical, biological or physical, takes place there balancing of these changes in the favor of life existence. Linking this to engineering, the production of electricity has been argued to alter the availability of the water on the earth surfaces but it has improved the way of life to the people by providing the means to pump underground water for both domestic and industrial use.

Luisetti, Federico. “Decolonizing Gaia or, Why the Savages Shall Fear Bruno Latour’s Political Animism.” Azimuth 9.1 (2017): 61-70.

The article was written by Federico Luisetti, from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this article, he explains how the Gaia should be decolonized to save the earth from the Gaia illusion. According to the article, it shows that Gaia is believed to the supernatural power that takes control of biological, chemical and physical changes on the earth atmosphere but Federico says that according to Latour takes, this is state war where all are fighting against all. Therefore, he says that to obtain collective civilization of nature, human beings need to  lay hold of Gaia. In relation to electrical engineering, currently there is much of carbon dioxide that has been released in the atmosphere in the production of electricity that produces energy for both domestic and industrial use. To counter the Gaia beliefs, human being are inventing renewable source of energy such as wind power, to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere thus modifying the nature of the earth for better life of living things.

Meybeck, Michel. “Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 358.1440 (2003): 1935-1955.

The article, written by Meybeck, explains how the river system is connected to the earth system and Anthropocene. On the earth, the aquatic system are set in way that they provide material such as nutrients ions, water, metals and carbon to the living and non-living things. According to the author, all these materials get to aquatic system through various natural activities such as erosion and leaching of the soil, biological uptake and food-web cycle among others. Therefore, these activities are determined by either tectonic, lithological or climatic factors. Taking the climatic factors, the global climate is experiencing a lot of changes and therefore it means that river system has already been changed to. Therefore, it is important to consider the human factors that affected the climate such has increase in use of electrical appliances that emit a lot of heat which leads to global warming.

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