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Enfranchisement

“For nearly seventy years women have worked for enfranchisement. They have held enormous mass meetings in large cities, and have addressed tiny group in the remote towns; they have held innumerable street meetings and many great procession; they have rolled up huge petitions to Congress…they have sent to the President deputation after deputation of women representing every walk of life. Last January a deputation of women waited upon President Wilson, urging him to stop the waste of energy and life that being expended in the long struggle to establish democracy for women. His reply was that women must “concert public opinion” in favor of their freedom.

Since that date women have realized that they needed to make a more constant, direct, and public appeal to the President for justice. Every day since January 10, 1917…women have stood at the gates of the White House, holding in their hands their suffrage banner or purple, white, and gold…

Women are not asking the government to do the impossible…

But instead of assisting women to win freedom, the Government is trying to intimidate those who ask for free. And the women are determined to go on asking for it, knowing well that the very effort of the government to suppress them is carrying their message all the more clearly to the people.”

Document #1: “Why We Picket” by the National Woman’s Party (1917)

Document #2:

“We are returning from war! The Crisis and tens of thousands of black men were drafted into a great struggle…we fought gladly and to the last drop of blood….But today we return!…We sing, this country of ours, despite all its better souls have done and dreamed, is yet a shameful land.

It lynches…

It disfranchised its own citizens…

It encourages ignorance…

It insults us…

This is the country to which we soldiers of democracy return. This is the fatherland for which we fought! But it is our fatherland. It was right for us to fight…

We return fighting.

Make way for Democracy!”

Document #2: W.E.B. Dubois, “Returning Soldiers,” The Crisis (1919)

Document #3:

“You declare war with Spain for the sake of Humanity. You announced to the world that your program was to set Cuba free, in conformity with your constitutional principles….you promised us your aid and protection in our attempt to form a government on the principles and after the model of the government of the United States….Joy abounded in every heart, and all went well…until…the Government at Washington…commenced by ignoring all promises that had been made and ended by ignoring the Philippine people, their personality and rights, and treating them as a common enemy….In the face of the world you emblazon humanity and Liberty upon your standard, while you cast your political constitution to the winds and attempt to trample down and exterminate a brave people whose only crime is that they are fighting for their liberty.”

Document #3: Emilio Aguinaldo, “Aguinaldo’s Case Against the United States” (1899)

Document #4:

“We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secure once for all against their recurrence. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us. The programme of the world’s peace, therefore, is our programme; and that programme, the only possible programme, as we see it, is this:

[list of the full 14 points here] (Links to an external site.)

In regard to these essential rectifications of wrong and assertions of right we feel ourselves to be intimate partners of all the governments and peoples associated together against the Imperialists. We cannot be separated in interest or divided in purpose. We stand together until the end.”

Document #4: President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Point Plan Speech (1918) (Links to an external site.)

Document #5:

Roosevelt Big Stick

Document #5: William Roger’s “The Big Stick in the Caribbean Sea” (1904)

Document #6:

We Progressives believe that the people have the right, the power, and the duty to protect themselves and their own welfare; that human rights are supreme over all other rights; that wealth should be the servant, not the master, of the people.

We believe that unless representative government does absolutely represent the people it is not representative government at all.

We test the worth of all men and all measures by asking how they contribute to the welfare of the men, women, and children of whom this nation is composed.

We are engaged in one of the great battles of the age—long contest waged against privilege on behalf of the common welfare.

We hold it a prime duty of the people to free our government from the control of money in politics.

For this purpose we advocate, not as ends in themselves, but as weapons in the hands of the people, all governmental devices which will make the representatives of the people more easily and certainly responsible to the people’s will.

Document #6: Theodore Roosevelt, “A Chater for Democracy” (1912)

Document #7:

1921 Immigration Quota

Document #7: Immigration Quota 1921 Political Cartoon

Document #8:

PWA Map

Document #8: Map of PWA programs (Links to an external site.)

* 20 point deduction for each document not used effectively below the six document requirement

Essay must use all of the following key terms:
19th amendment
American Expedition Force
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Equal Rights Amendment
Eugenics
Johnson-Reed Act
Ku Klux Klan
League of Nations
Monroe Doctrine
National American Woman Suffrage Association
National Woman’s Party
New Deal Coalition
People’s Party
Philippines American War
Plessy v Ferguson
Red Scare
Repatriation Program
Roosevelt Corollary
Scottsboro Boys
Social Security
Socialist Party
Spanish American War
Wagner Act