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Cryptographic Algorithms and Techniques

There are three main types of cryptographic algorithms: (1) secret key, (2) public key, and (3) hash functions. Pick an algorithm for any one of these types (e.g., DES, AES, RSA, MD5) and describe how it works and where it is applied (For example SSL uses 3DES or DES) for message encryption. Use your own words. When you pick an algorithm, try not to repeat it. Be sure to reference your sources.

Most cyber-attacks happen because of vulnerabilities in system or application software. Buffer Overflow, SQL Injection, Code/OS Command Injection, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), Cross-Site Request Forgery and Race Conditions are very common vulnerabilities. (Refer to both NIST/DHS and MITRE databases of common vulnerabilities (http://nvd.nist.gov/cwe.cfm; http://cwe.mitre.org/top25/).) For this conference, explain what a specific vulnerability is, describe a famous attack that leveraged it (For example, the Morris worm leveraged the buffer overflow vulnerability), and how it can be prevented/minimized. Your post can either discuss a vulnerability that has not been discussed or expand upon what someone has already posted.