Critiquing a Randomized Clinical Trial

Overview

Students will critically appraise an assigned randomized trial to assess the effectiveness of an

intervention. They will outline the main elements of the study design and methodology,

considering potential sources of selection bias, information bias, and confounding in the study.

Learning objective

By completing this assignment, students should be able to:

  1. Describe selection bias, information bias, and confounding in the context of a randomized

trial.

  1. Critique the application of risk of bias in internal validity and application of external

validity when critically appraising published experimental studies.

Formatting

This assignment will be 5 pages maximum (excludes cover page and references). All

assignments should include a cover page that contains: the assignment title, course title and code,

instructor of the course, tutorial section, date, student name, and student number. Assignments

should be double-spaced, using Times New Roman size 12 font and 1-inch margins. Please use

the following file-naming convention: “Last name First initial_Assignment 1_Tutorial number”

(e.g., Smith M_Assignment 1_TUT001).

Please indicate each question number (e.g., Question 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, etc.) and answer each question

in full sentences.

Submission

Please submit the assignment to the Turnitin Module on Quercus by 11:59 PM on Tuesday,

January 28. Do not submit assignments by email or in hard copy to the Department, the

Instructor’s office, or the teaching assistants’ offices. Resubmission of allegedly lost assignments is generally denied. Students are expected to work independently on assignments. All late assignments will lose 5% per day (including weekends) unless prior arrangements have been made. Without exception, assignments that are submitted more than seven days late, without prior permission from the instructor, will receive a grade of zero

Introduction

Obstetrics nurses (OB) offer pre-natal and post-natal care to patients. These nurses work with midwives, obstetricians and other health care practitioners to offer quality care to patients in their attempt to get pregnant, during pregnancy, at childbirth and after delivery. The nursing role is to achieve quality care and good health for both mother and child. The current paper presents a discussion on the various approaches that can be adopted in hiring OB nurses, the level of qualification needed and the most suitable approach in conducting orientation and socialization to attain a highly qualified staff.

Strategies for Hiring OB Nurses

Different approaches can be used for sourcing and recruit registered nurses for the OB unit. According to Veltman (2015), nurses working in the OB unit must attain a higher diploma in nursing or its equivalent. Also, the nurses must have passed the NCLEX-RN examinations to become registered nurses. Alternatively, one is required to be a graduate of Bachelor of Science in a nursing program and qualifies as a registered nurse to take up the role of an OB nurse.

Focusing on the case presented, there is opening for five registered nurses in the said hospital. A directive has been provided that the recruits should not have more than two-year experience in the provision of care within the OB unit. The management can explore five different alternatives to comply with the directive. First, the management can consider employing registered nurses who have worked for less than two years in the obstetrics unit. Secondly, the organization can consider looking for students who have completed their higher diploma in nursing and did their internship within the OB department. The management can also consider recruiting nurses who have attained various training to enhance their knowledge and skills in obstetrics. For instance, undertaking programs such as Neonatal Resuscitation program, Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics, and Pediatric Advanced life support enhances the ability of a nurse to undertake the obstetrics roles. The management can also consider hiring new graduates who have attained the registered nurse satisfaction. However, since new graduates have had never worked in an OB unit, there is a need for proper orientation and socialization for them to offer the quality services needed.

Orientation and socialization of newly recruited OB nurses

The orientation and socialization are mainly done to equip the graduate with practical skills in the provision of pre and post-natal care. Also, orientation is done to introduce policies, procedures, physical facilities and the nature of a given work environment to the newly recruited nurses. A mentoring approach is used to orient the new staff and achieve socialization. The mentor plays a significant role in the transition of the new graduates from novice nurses to experts (Panzavecchia & Pearce, 2014). Apart from mentoring the newly recruited staff, the mentor also has a role in developing the growth and career development of the nurses. The new graduates will not only be able to acquire the nursing skills and competency needed to undertake the role of an OB nurse but will also achieves enhanced career development.

Interviewing new graduates: A Case Analysis

An interview gives an opportunity for the new graduate to showcase his/her strengths and ability to accomplish the tasks for the advertised position. The interviewer evaluates the qualification, the quality of skills and the expertise of every candidate that appears for the interview. The interviewee is evaluated based on the nature of the responses provided and their ability to point out the strengths of the individual (O’Rourke, 2015). Focusing on the case presented, the responses provided by the interviewee were not satisfactory and did not indicate the strengths of the interviewee in handling tasks within the OB unit. Questions touching on cultural beliefs, bereavement, and informed consent are responded to, based on the code of ethics in nursing. The questions are mainly asked to understand the ability of the interviewee to comply with the nursing ethics and code of conduct. Suitable responses would have been on the approaches that can be undertaken by a nurse to deal with the ethical issues while adhering to the nursing guidelines and principles.

Adequate preparation for an interview is vital in assisting one offer quality responses to the questions presented. In the case of John, provision of suitable and satisfactory responses would have been likely if he had prepared adequately for the interview. According to Buriro, Awan & Lanjwani (2017). The initial step in preparation for the interview involves researching the interviewing organization. This is followed by an exploration of the probable questions that might be presented during the interview. Questions on one-self, level of qualification, ability to handle various issues and reasons for choosing the organization are likely to be asked in an interview with a new registered nurse. Getting the correct answers for the formulated questions enhances the ability of one to offer satisfactory responses in the actual interview.

Interview questions presented on personal and cultural issues requires an understanding of ethics in nursing practice to adequately give a suitable response. As a result, the interviewee can use the chance to showcase his/her skills or experience in managing ethical issues. The presented questions required the interviewee to give information on how ethical principles provide the basis for making a judgment on various issues presented. For instance, the ethical principles will guide the communication process between the nurse and a bereaved parent. Also, the ethical principles will inform the nurse on how to deal with cultural issues and issues of informed consent that he/she may encounter in the line of duty (Judkins-Cohn et al., 2013). According to Parahoo (2014) ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, fairness, justice, and truthfulness, guide the actions and behavior of the nurse when dealing with conflicts. Nevertheless, it is important that the ethical considerations are balances with the nursing profession values to act in an ethically and professional sound manner.

Being a new graduate, it is likely that the interviewee might not have had sufficient experience in the application of the ethical principles and standards. Responding to issues that required the same, proved to be difficult and uncomfortable based on the responses provided. The questions were more suitable for candidates that have had a higher level of experience in the nursing profession if not in the OB unit. Subsequent interviews for new graduates should focus on understanding their self-worth, evaluating their attitude and perception towards the nursing profession, understanding the reasons for choosing the interviewing organization, and evaluating the quality of their skills in undertaking the nursing duties. Also, the interview questions may focus on evaluating the interpersonal and communication skills of the interviewee as well as their ability to offer customer care services. These general questions are suitable for interviewing a new graduate; since they do not focus on any specificity thus experience in OB nursing is not a prerequisite.

 

References

Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

Judkins-Cohn, T. M., Kielwasser-Withrow, K., Owen, M., & Ward, J. (2013). Ethical principles of informed consent: exploring nurses’ dual role of care provider and researcher. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing45(1), 35-42.

Buriro, A. G., Awan, J. H., & Lanjwani, A. R. (2017). Interview: A Research Instrument for Social Science Researchers. International Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education1(4), 246-259.

O’Rourke, M. (2015). Employee management: the job interview, and what questions can I ask?. Ag Decision Maker Newsletter16(2), 2.

Panzavecchia, L., & Pearce, R. (2014). Are preceptors adequately prepared for their role in supporting newly qualified staff?. Nurse education today34(7), 1119-1124.

Veltman, L. (2015). Obstetrics Hospitalists. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics42(3), 507-517.