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Critically review the issues highlighted in the published literature regarding female international

Critically review the issues highlighted in the published literature regarding female international
Q2: MUST include the following Information.
* Types of international assignments:
* Four types of international assignment (Cranfield):
Expatriate assignment – employee/ family move to host country for a specified period of time.
Short-term assignment – assignment of less than one year (perhaps with family).
International commuter assignments – when an employee commutes from home country to a place of work
in another country, usually on a weekly or bi-weekly basis, while the family remains at home.
Frequent flyer assignments – when an employee undertakes frequent international business trips but does
not relocate. the‘flexi patriate’
For most expatriates this involves relocation of their family and personal lives to a different environment
and, as such, it has been recognized as a difficult and strategically significant aspect of IHRM(Forster, 2000;
Regnet, 2000).
Since the 1980s, the issues associated with selection, training, appraisal and compensation have been
reconsidered in the context of expatriate appointments (Festing, 1996)
A range of difficulties and costs of the expatriation and repatriation process (Bennett et al., 2000).
* International Worker Focus
Home based manager – but central focus on international markets and players
Multicultural team members working on a series of international projects
Internationally mobile managers – frequent/short visits overseas but loyal to parent culture
Non-management specialist roles – skills/knowledge transfer
Expatriates – lengthy assignments representing parent in a limited number of countries
Transnational managers – move across borders but detached from single HQ
Sparrow P. 1999
* Cross-cultural communication skills
Capacity to accept the relativity of one’s own knowledge and perceptions
Capacity to be non-judgmental
Tolerant of ambiguity
Capacity to communicate respect for other people’s ways, their country and values
Capacity to display empathy
Capacity to be flexible
Capacity to take turns eg in negotiating
Humility to acknowledge what you do not know and to seek to learn
References MUST used in Q2:
1- Ruth M. Stock & Nadine Genisyürek (2012): A taxonomy of expatriate leaders’ cross-cultural
uncertainty: insights into the leader–employee dyad.
2- Hartmut Haas & Stephan Nüesch (2012): Are multinational teams more successful?
3- Fiona Moore (2015) An unsuitable job for a woman: a ‘native category’ approach to gender,
diversity and cross-cultural management

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