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Critical Appraisal of Evidence

The steps correspond to those found in the Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt text (3rd edition–>Chapters 1-3; Steps Summary pp. 10-16; 4th edition–>Chapters 1-3; Steps Summary pp. 16-24).

Step 1: Begin by specifying your PICOT question the group is using for the poster. This could be one from a previous nursing situation paper.
——Intervention PICOT question: In school-age children (P), what is the impact of a school-based physical activity program (I) on reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity (O) compared to home-based exercises (C) within two years (T)?

Step 2: Search for the Best Evidence. All group members must keep track of the search terms, the number of data sources, the process of inclusion and exclusion. It is expected that there are two reviewers/appraisers for each source of evidence. An evidence search is a focused and ordered approach and you should include a flow diagram that specifies the number of records to the final N for appraisal.

Step 3: Conduct a Rapid Critical Appraisal of Evidence.
1.For this assignment, each member of the assigned group will be responsible for searching, appraising, and summarizing literature on the chosen topic. Each person will report on 2 sources of evidence (Current within the past 5 years). Sources of evidence include research studies, clinical guidelines, consensus/position statements, meta-syntheses, meta-analyses, and literature reviews). As a reminder, be sure to select the highest level of evidence possible and this is determined by the hierarchy of evidence. For this assignment, you are required to include at least one of the three major types of evidence literature: systematic review, research study, and standards and guidelines

2.Appraisal. The Rapid Appraisal Critical Appraisal Checklists are located in Appendix B of Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt text (3rd edition–>Appendix B; 4th edition–>Appendix B). Select the Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist that fits the evidence type.

3. Evaluation Table: Prepare an Evaluation Table to compare the literature (see Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 3rd edition–>p. 552 for the template; 4th edition–> pp. 724- 725) that includes the strengths and weaknesses of the literature, and the recommendations for practice based on the quality and levels of evidence presented in the paper. The background should be supported with relevant literature (current within the past 5 years and from professional literature/websites) to support the description of the problem and its significance to nursing and to patients.

To help you with the summary, refer to the Hierarchy of Evidence for Intervention/Treatment Questions (see Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt 3rd edition, p. 11; 4th edition, p. 18 ).

4. Prepare an abstract of 150-200 words.

5. Prepare a poster. The 4 X 5 poster PowerPoint slide is to include the following elements: abstract, picot question, brief nursing situation, background, plan flow diagram for literature selection/ rejection, major points (with citations) from the evaluation of literature table, implications for practice, and recommendations for research, and (implications for health policy as appropriate to the topic).

The Cochrane Collaboration adopted definitions that are specified in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, known as PRISMA. Take a moment to review the PRISMA statement (Links to an external site.) The use of PRISMA to systematize the review process provides order and greater consistency in reporting the current evidence. A key feature is the use of the PRISMA flow diagram. As a reminder, a flow diagram that specifies the number of database records and than drills down to the final total used in the systematic review and the metaanalysis.