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Case study on history of diabetes and hypertension

 

1. John, an overweight 49-year-old man with history of diabetes and hypertension is playing soccer. After half an hour of an intense game, he feels severe chest pain that travels to his lower jaw. He is pale, diaphoretic, and short in breath. Upon arrival to the ER, an ECG was taken and the results show the following (note the changes in leads II, III and aVF):
Choose 3 out of the 5 prompts and answer:
1. What could be the possible reason for John’s chest pain? Explain your answer based on the clinical information.
2. How do you know John’s chest pain is heart related? How do you rule out other etiologies of chest pain such as musculoskeletal, pneumonia, and gastric sources?
3. What actions should John’s teammates have taken at the scene to help him?
4. How do you differentiate between heart attack and myocardial infarction?
?5. What is TPA? Explain how it relieves the chest pain and how it improves the survival rate in a patient with acute myocardial infarction.

2. D. D. is a 66 year-old female suffering from shortness of breath. She smoked 2 packs a day until she quit 2 years ago. She has a history of bronchiolitis, hyperinflated lungs, pulmonary edema, and syncope. Her primary care practitioner suspects she also has pulmonary hypertension (PH). After examination, D. D. has a PAP of 35mmHg and mild CHF.

Citing scholarly resources, answer the following questions:

  • What is pulmonary hypertension and how could D. D. have developed PH?
  • How does her history fit in with her new diagnosis?
  • In addition to the two questions above, select ONE other question from the list below to complete your discussion post. Be sure to cite the sources of your information and clearly identify which supplemental question you chose to answer.
  • How many patients are suffering from COPD in the United States? Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? (Be sure to cite the data.)
  • What two separate diseases are the main COPD diseases? Give background on each disease.
  • How does COPD correlate with left ventricular pressure and primary heart failure?
  • What are the three types of bronchodilators, and how do they function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD? What are other possible treatments for COPD?
  • Through which mechanism does bronchiolitis cause destruction of alveoli? Is emphysema genetic? Can environmental factors increase the risk of emphysema? Why or why not?
  • Is lung transplantation a solution for emphysema? Can new technology be useful in the treatment of emphysema? Why or why not?

 

  • What is pulmonary hypertension and how could D. D. have developed PH?

Pulmonary hypertension (ph) is an extraordinary but life-threatening lung ailment that takes place when the pulmonary arteries come to be narrowed and stiff. The pulmonary arteries are the vessels that pass blood from the coronary heart to the lungs, and whilst they’re obstructed, the coronary heart desires to paintings more difficult to pump the blood. The disorder can motive an expansion and weakening of the coronary heart, and in the end proper coronary heart failure or other fatal outcomes.

  • How does her history fit in with her new diagnosis?

The maximum not unusual signs and symptoms of pulmonary high blood pressure consist of shortness of breath (dyspnea), fatigue, dizziness or fainting spells (syncope), stress or pain inside the chest, swelling (edema) inside the ankles, legs or stomach (ascites), bluish coloration of the lips and pores and skin (cyanosis) and abnormal heart beat. The sickness is hard to diagnose due to the fact its signs and symptoms are easily unsuitable by way of different lung or coronary heart disorder, but also because its reasons aren’t absolutely disclosed and are special relying at the subtype of disease.

In addition to the two questions above, select ONE other question from the list below to complete your discussion post. Be sure to cite the sources of your information and clearly identify which supplemental question you chose to answer.

  • How many patients are suffering from COPD in the United States? Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? (Be sure to cite the data.)

Copd turned into the fourth-leading trusted source motive of death in the America in 2016, following coronary heart disorder, most cancers, and unintentional accidents.

Girls have better charges of copd than guys all through most of their lifespan, even though it seems that they’re specifically inclined earlier than the age of 65.

Inside the Americas, girls are nonetheless 37 percentage more likely to have copd than men.

Above 7 million U. S. Women have copd, and thousands and thousands greater are believed to have signs and symptoms, but haven’t been diagnosed. You can get it at any age, however middle-aged and older adults are maximum likely to be recognized with copd.

  • What two separate diseases are the main COPD diseases? Give background on each disease.

Incessant bronchitis

Bronchitis is aggravation of the bronchi, the air pathways to the lungs.

In 2016, more than 8.9 million AmericansTrusted Source were determined to have incessant bronchitis and almost 75 percent of cases included individuals beyond 45 years old.

In the US, ladies have interminable bronchitis at practically twofold the pace of men. In 2016, 5.9 million ladies had been determined to have incessant bronchitis in the previous a year, rather than 3 million men who had been analyzed during this time.

There are a few contrasts among races, as well. Figures from 2016 additionally demonstrated that non-Hispanic whites and African Americans were bound to have been determined to have interminable bronchitis.

Emphysema

Emphysema makes harm the alveoli, the air sacs in your lungs. The dividers of the harmed air sacs become loosened up and your lungs really get greater, making it harder to move

  • How does COPD correlate with left ventricular pressure and primary heart failure?
  • What are the three types of bronchodilators, and how do they function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD? What are other possible treatments for COPD?
  • Through which mechanism does bronchiolitis cause destruction of alveoli? Is emphysema genetic? Can environmental factors increase the risk of emphysema? Why or why not?
  • Is lung transplantation a solution for emphysema? Can new technology be useful in the treatment of emphysema? Why or why not?

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