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Monthly Archives: November 2020

Organizational Diagnosis

Write a 1500-word report (±10%) that diagnoses an organization in the following manner: 1. Interview an organizational leader to determine the challenges they currently encounter in their organization. 2. From the interview, what do you think are the major factors of the identified challenges? 3. Describe in detail the issues and leadership dynamics you see. 4. In what environment, or world, does the leader view the organization as existing? 5. Which of the organizational metaphors listed in Morgan best describes the organization? Explain its advantages and disadvantages. 6. Provide alternative explanations and theories that might explain why the problem exists. 7. Detail an action plan for the leader that includes how they can resolve the challenges you described. Paper Structure: APA Format (1500 words) Executive Summary (instead of an abstract). Brief org. overview. Overview of issues presented. Link to theory. Prescribe solutions/action plan. Make it actionable! References: (These should be sprinkled in) Sire (2009). The universe next door. (Chapters 3-4) Daft (2016). Organization Theory. (Chapters 4,5,6) Morgan (2006). Images of Organizations. (Part II, chapters 5-9) Argyris, Chris. 1997. Initiating change that perseveres. (Initiating Change: Theory and Practice). American Behavioral Scientist 40, no. 3 (Jan): 299-310.


Apple Inc is recognized as one of the most innovative in the world moving from operating within the computer industry to thrive in the consumer electronic and music sector. The company has continually reported higher amounts of revenue and surpassed companies such as Exxon Mobil and Microsoft that were considered major players in the industry. As of the year 2015, the company’s upward trajectory was still evident and Apple Inc. was worth over $ 719 billion. Despite this high performance, the company still faces major problems and challenges. In an interview with the current CEO Tim Cook, it is reported that the major issues that the organization is currently dealing with include trade uncertainties, legal issues with Qualcomm, sharp reduction in the iPhone sales, and challenges in planning for the arrival of the 5G network. While exploring the issues and challenges that are currently faced by Apple Inc, this paper presents the analysis of the factors causing the problems, identifying the theoretical underpinnings that explains the existence of the issues and challenges. Recommendations on approaches and action plan that can be implemented to resolve the problems is also discussed.

Summary of Issues Currently Faced by the Organization

Since the return of Steve Jobs to Apple Inc in the year, 1997, the sales and revenue of the company have been on an upward trajectory. There has been a continuous increase in the company’s revenue for the last 20 years. However, recent development has seen Apple Inc only registers a reduction it its growth rate. As much as the revenue and sales have continue to rise, their growth rate is relatively lower than what was witnessed in the previous years. This reduction in the growth of the company is attributed to the issues and problems that the company currently face.

Trade uncertainties is one of the major challenges that is currently faced by the company. The trade conflict between China and the US, have had significant negative effects on Apple Inc. Besides reduction in the company’s stock disruption of the company manufacturing practices have also been reported. Apple Inc also has to deal with the issues of decline sales of its iPhone. The demand for smartphones and specifically for iPhones, have been observed, affecting the company’s sales volume.

Organizational Metaphor

Metaphors as the conceptual and powerful instruments make up a successful aspect not just in our every day discussions and discourses and also in school analysis. Metaphors consist of symbolic terminology which happens to be “basic to the mental operations humans use to find out reality, facts, and meanings“ (Ortony, 1979). These power tools provide this opportunity for anyone to interpret definitions making sensation of their worlds and day-to-day lives (Ortony, 1975 Oswick, Keenoy, And Give, 2002 Pepper, 1942 Smith And Simmons, 1983). Men and women could also use them as a technique to build the meanings in their operates (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Therefore, they are considered an component element of agents’ procedure for sensation-producing and as a artistic instrument that will potently produce new understandings about scenarios and new sorts of functions based on those understandings (Jacobs & Heracleous, 2006). It implies, by way of this meaning-creating method that is dynamic in general, methods and activities are operationalized in line with the emerged meanings, discussed and cared in socially made and located contexts. It can be remarkable to bring up that “the fact of metaphor is knowing and encountering one type of point when it comes to another” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 2003). Put simply, via researching metaphors, we start to perceive our societal and actual experience (Hogler et al., 2008) which can be discursively designed and created.

Though these were initially neglected, desire for learning them burgeoned over the last two generations. Just recently, scientific study has go to this knowing that metaphors exist in company idea (Oswick et al., 2002 Tsoukas, 1991) and their worries are already articulated over this problem that how they may use them like a camera lens to understand the functions and practices relevant to organizations. According to Cornelissen and Kafouros (2008), a substantial system of company investigation suggests that metaphorical representations associated with organizations enable us to theorize and reason relating to this issue. As metaphors reflect various other see and vision about the way you understand the community far better, exploitation of these likely gear could possibly be successful to push our knowing and understandings concerning a sophisticated while contradictory occurrence for example enterprises.

The popular propagator of this viewpoint is Gareth Morgan who in his groundbreaking guide, Images of Firm suggests a constructivist perspective around the information and hypothesis advancement with regards to agencies. In accordance with Jermier and Forbes (2011), Morgan’s job can be viewed as as being a worthwhile useful resource for professionals in the organization who would like to additional look into the metaphorical underpinnings from the field and also the associated literature which can be pulled upon this function. These scientists are in the belief that the publication is comprised of the very imaginative and methodologically elaborated resources and is core for those being affected by paradigmatic alternatives and major ways to growing ecocentric science about businesses (see Hoffman & Bansal, 2012).

The Future of Police and Patrol

Police departments are significantly more intricate than they had been an era or two back. Though personnel is still accountable for traditional responsibilities such as calls for service and crime investigation, police have expanded their mission greatly, taking on the goals of preventing crime and reducing crime rates. Instead of focusing solely on responding to crimes after they are committed, today’s best police departments are looking for ways to be proactive as well.

To identify these new proactive strategies PERF—with the support of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) and Target Corporation—conducted a Future of Policing survey in 2012 that was disseminated to more than 500 police agencies. Based on the nearly 200 responses received from police departments across the country, the survey results helped to identify some of the biggest opportunities and challenges that police agencies may be facing in the future. In August of 2012 more than 30 police executives gathered at
Target headquarters in Minneapolis for a day-long discussion of the survey findings and their perspectives on the state of the future of policing.1 Though we cannot anticipate everything that will occur in the next three to five years, we can research, survey, and discuss identified trends. We can then draw well-informed conclusions to prepare for future demands. PERF hopes that the findings reported here can help those in the field of policing adequately prepare for the coming changes. Promising Crime Fighting Strategies At the day-long meeting at Target in Minneapolis, participants engaged in discussions and provided insights into how policing could change in the next two to five years with respect to police functions and department structure, communication, and the relationship between police agencies and the community, what role technology and social media will play, and how officer recruitment and retention could be affected by budget cuts. 1. Officials cited in this report are generally identified by their titles at the time they were quoted.
As the table below demonstrates, one significant survey finding is that a handful of policing strategies have won widespread acceptance in the law enforcement community, and predictive and intelligence-led policing appear poised to join this list in the coming years. Table 1: PERF Survey Question: What crime-fighting strategies does your agency use currently?

Final results Reveal that More Companies Intend To Adopt Predictive Policing and Knowledge-Led Policing.

The PERF questionnaire results suggest you will see considerable growth in practicing two methods: predictive policing and learning ability-directed policing.

Predictive policing was identified in the 2009 Nationwide Institution of Proper rights write-up as “taking info from disparate resources, examining them, after which making use of the results to predict, avoid and reply better to upcoming criminal activity.”3 Predictive policing often starts off with old strategies like “hot spots” policing—mapping the areas where lots of criminal offenses have already been devoted in the past. But predictive policing should go prior to comfortable location policing for the reason that it requires exploration info utilizing sources. For instance, in Arlington, Texas, law enforcement officials found out that burglaries are more frequent in local communities designated by actual decay. So they designed a solution for finding probably the most “fragile” neighborhoods. In this manner, it could be possible to recognize at-risk places before they experience a rash of break-ins or other crimes.

Learning ability-guided policing can be an associated idea that involves a number of factors coming with each other. It really has been described as “a business structure and managerial approach where information evaluation and offense learning ability are vital to a target, selection-creating framework that facilitates crime and issue lessening, interference and avoidance.” Learning ability-directed policing targets prolific and critical felony offenders in an arranged, thoughtful method

Income Statement Versus Cash Flow Statement in Company Financial Analysis

Both the income statement and the cash flow statement are important in company financial analysis.
Discuss the usefulness of earnings (and the income statement) and cash flows (and the cash flow
statement) in predicting future cash flows and stock returns.
The articles listed below are only a starting point:
(a) Barth, M.E., P.C. Donald and K.K. Nelson (2001), Accruals and the Prediction of Future Cash
Flows, The Accounting Review, Vol. 76, No. 1, January, pp. 27–58
(b) Finger, C.A. (1994), The Ability of Earnings to Predict Future Earnings and Cash Flows, Journal of
Accounting Research, Vol.32, No.2, Autumn, pp.210-223.

Sample Paper

Income statements and cash flow statements are considered vital documents in the prediction of the company’s financial performance. The statement can be adopted in the prediction of the future cash flows, earnings, or stock returns that can be reported by an organization. Different studies have been done to investigate the predictive role of cash flows drawn from the cash flow statement, and earnings obtained from the income statement. A number of studies have reported the significant role of cash flows in predicting future cash flows and stock values. In fact, the studies show that cash flows are more superior in the prediction of cash flows and stock value in relation to the current earnings of the organization. On the contrary, some studies have reported the significance of earnings in predicting stock value, though they are considered less effective in predicting the company’s cash flow. Despite the mixed findings on the predictive role of cash flows and earnings, it is deduced that profits can be misleading and are thus not better predictors of future cash flows of a company’s stock return.  This paper presents a comparative analysis of the cash flow statements and income statements in their prediction of the future cash flows or stock return of a company

Shareholders depend on economic information and facts, like income and funds-linked activities, to calculate a firm’s intrinsic worth importance and anticipate the go across-region of recurrent income. Fama and French (2006) find that more lucrative companies have better-anticipated earnings. Novy-Marx (2013) demonstrates that profits, calculated by gross earnings-to-assets, forecasts the go across a portion of common results equally well as book-to-industry ratios do. Fama and French (2015) add a profitability measure being a new element, stretching their popular three-component model. Hou, Xue, and Zhang (2015a and 2015b) create a q-component model that contains an earnings element, which does nicely in outlining anomalies. Soccer ball et al. (2015a) demonstrate that running profitability determines that far better suits recent expenses and revenues is an even better forecaster of earnings and also show that results rely on if the denominator is over all belongings or the market value of home equity. Hence, the look for proceeds for economic information and facts that far better forecasts stock profits. Even though the cash flow declaration is definitely at the core of financial statement evaluation, properly-reported shortcomings1 get in touch with into query the efficiency of relying on its parts to

1 See Sloan (1996) and Markham (2006). See also more generally, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (1973). The committee, chaired by Robert Trueblood, urged the accounting profession to be more 2 value stocks and predict stock returns. Notorious bankruptcies including Enron and WorldCom, graphically illustrate that profitable GAAP income statements can simultaneously co-exist with negative operating or free cash flows for the same company for long periods of time (see Appendix A for a typical representation). More specifically, we believe existing GAAP requirements permit too many alternative types of financial statement presentations, such information is too aggregated, and can be inconsistently presented making it difficult for users to understand the relationship between how accounting information is presented and the underlying economic results of the firm. Novy-Marx’s (2013) intuition that the farther down the income statement one goes, the more “polluted” profitability measures become and less related to “true” or economic profitability certainly rings true. Yet it is not obvious that any accrual accounting profit measure, regardless of where on the income statement it appears, should be superior to cash-based measures of performance and value. In theory, if financial information is sourced from the same underlying economic data there should be no difference between using information derived from either the income or cash flow statement when making investment decisions. If, however, this assumption does not hold (as was the case with Enron and Worldcom) then it is possible the income statement may depict one state of affairs while the cash flow statement another. It is our belief that the lack of uniformity amongst the reported statements and their disjointed presentation makes it extremely difficult for investors to test the quality of a corporation’s historical earnings and compare the results within or across industries. Our work reveals that by introducing a standardized ‘direct cash flow’ template investors can better understand the historical, contemporaneous and forecasted return potential of a firm. Both International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and U.S. GAAP encourage firms to present operating cash receipts and payments using the direct method of financial statement presentation. The vast majority of firms, however, elect to present operating cash flows using the indirect method. Unfortunately, when the indirect method is used, it presents no operating cash receipts or payments in the statement of cash flows.2 Instead, it merely reconciles net income to

reactive to purchasers and bank loan suppliers in offering info about the organizations they audited and existing significantly less deference to corporate management. 2 The data processing common for presenting the document of cash flows is documented from the Economic Data processing Specifications Table (FASB) (1987), identified simply as FASB 95 or FAS 95. Particularly, see site 6 that suggests “The 3 ‘operating income flow’ by adjusting for bookkeeping items that do not make or use money which includes: depreciation, alterations in credit accounts receivables, payables or taxation and stopped functions, restructuring or particular costs. As a result, the important points provided in the indirect income statement include noncash running things included in internet revenue (or reduction) instead of operating cash statements and repayments. In addition, it can be extremely hard to version the degree, consistency, timing, and volatility of prospective cash flows because inflows and outflows are not collected based to typical monetary characteristics.3 Consider the simple instance of a transaction manufactured fully on credit score. A rise in accounts receivable caused by a customer’s delayed obligations foliage both revenues and world wide web income are unaffected just as if the complete transaction was received. It can be only by looking at a separate operating income document that consumers discover that cash inflows were actually lowered and accruals have been increased by the identical quantity. Moreover, changes in balances receivables usually are not assembled with its easy-to-use financial associate ‘revenues’ but rather with ‘working funds changes.’ The shortcoming is obvious: the indirect cash flow document hard disks net cashflow from operating actions without separately presenting the functioning funds’ invoices and obligations. Although the FASB sees accruals as improving the potential of income to evaluate business efficiency by smoothing out “temporary” variances in money runs, we perceive the absence of money inflows in the tardy buyer and the resulting irregular presentation across many economic claims as rich soil for safety mispricing.



Wetland Restoration

Wetland mitigation has been the “prime mover” in restoration practice for over three decades. For this assignment, please locate a case study of a wetland restoration project. You will want to find a case study that includes the initial restoration plan. It may or may not include the outcomes of the project. You may need to do some additional research of your own to find out how the plan has come together over the years. Seek out supporting research in the academic literature. Note that not all projects will have enough information, so be sure to review the assignment and skim the selected project prior to digging in. Once you have located your case study, prepare a 3-4 page double-spaced paper addressing the following: Problems and Goals: Why was this project initiated? What were the major goals and/or objectives of this project? Location and Challenges: Where is this project located? Why was this location chosen? Were there any particular challenges associated with the site? Reference Conditions: Are any reference conditions or sites mentioned? Were these taken into account when designing the project? Outcomes: What were the outcomes of the project? If none are listed, what do you anticipate as the outcomes? General Impressions: What are your impressions of this restoration plan? Is it detailed enough to give you a sense of the scope of the project? Is anything missing? What have you learned about wetland restoration from this case study?

Sample Task

Increasing cases of coastal system degradation have been reported in many regions across the globe. The coastal ecosystem act as a significant source for a number of human goods and services. More than 60% of people live near the coastlines and conduct most activities within the region. Also, the ecosystem supports many human activities, that are essential in promoting quality lives. The degradation of the coastal ecosystem is thus not just a threat to the habitats but also to humans. Most governments have implemented restoration strategies to promote sustainable use of the coastal ecosystem. However, most of the approaches have not achieved the success desired. The restoration of the wetlands requires innovative approaches as opposed to the traditional strategies put in place by most governments. The chosen project presents an innovative plan to restore the wetlands using a habitat restoration strategy. This paper presents a discussion of the plan identifying the problem that formed the basis of the project followed with the in numeration of the project goals. The location of the project and any challenges encountered is also presented. The report also gives a discussion of the reference conditions and project outcome.

The decline and degradation of seaside ecosystems threatens biodiversity and the providers that humans get from these solutions, for example carbon dioxide sequestration, seaside safety, toxins purification, along with the provisioning of meals and raw materials. Although united states government and nongovernmental stakeholders have invested quite a few huge amounts of dollars to safeguard in danger shoreline ecosystems, their drop continues because of the mixed affects of anthropogenic interruptions, which include climatic change-caused heat surf and increased cyclone durability, together with the immediate impact from eutrophication, and seashore development. For that reason, salt marshes (42Pct), mangroves (35Percent), oyster reefs (85Per cent), coral reefs (19Percent), and seagrass meadows (29%) offer decreased globally in extent4,9–12. Preservation experts and policy creators are therefore searching for strategies to kitchen counter the installation losses of coast ecosystems in addition to their important professional services. Latest stress has focused on environment renovation as a efficiency treatment that may support response this contact. Nonetheless, coast repair demands development to improve its effectiveness, as existing efforts to rebuild coast wetlands and reefs are inclined to malfunction and therefore are often too costly to become integrated as central capabilities in largescale preservation preparing. A recently available, key creativity in coastal repair revealed that using self-facilitation between transplants can boost restoration brings. Whereas earlier operate demonstrated that raising planting occurrence can boost recovery good results, Silliman et al.16 demonstrated that results in might be doubled just by planting in clumps rather than making use of widely used plantation-design dispersed designs, and keep total occurrence unchanged. Even if this easy clumping technique provides the possibility to fundamentally transform coast renovation facilitation-using approaches could become particularly effective in the event the organism qualities producing self-facilitation can be mimicked and, as a result, created and spread at large scales. This kind of improvement would eradicate the demand for receiving a good amount of transplants which could hurt donor neighborhoods or require costly nurseries. Each individual organism has characteristics, including physique dimensions, or metabolic prices that enjoy a big position in figuring out its basic area of interest. Even so, when men and women spatially manage in the population degree, this process may develop emergent characteristics that happen to be understood to be attributed not conveyed by any individual personal or little clone, only appear with the corporate degree of the audience or possibly a large clone. For instance, specific mussels and oysters aggregate into reefs that ameliorate wave anxiety and minimize predation, although large seagrass and cordgrass clones develop contiguous meadows that lessen erosive and anoxic stress—properties that can not be produced by modest clones or people in isolation. A result of decreasing physical stresses through emergent traits is the realized area of interest may surpass the fundamental area of interest defined by the individual qualities, letting an established populace to inhabit problems otherwise unsuitable for the single person or perhaps a small clone. Even so, to permit place under such conditions, a critical tolerance for population dimension or occurrence thus needs to get over. Under natural conditions, an establishment may take place during the Windows of Opportunity—a sufficiently long time of exceptionally relaxed conditions where isolated folks or little clones can settle and grow30. Nonetheless, such House windows are relatively rare and, because of this, all-natural reestablishment procedures often take ages or longer.

Dynamic Aviation Environment

Choose one airline/airport affected by the crisis and provide a brief justification for your choice (5%)

  1. Based on the given data sets, determine the nature of current trends in the aviation sector (10%)
  2. Carry out a definitional analysis of the term ‘geopolitical’ using 3 appropriate sources (10%)
  3.   Carry out a media analysis of the organisation using a range of suitable sources to determine how it has been affected by the crisis (25%)
  4. Analyse the performance of the organisation chosen over the last 3 years using figures relating to passenger numbers, revenue, costs, profitability and customer satisfaction (30%)
  5. Determine the effectiveness of the organisation in response to the Qatar diplomatic crisis (20%)Introduction

    This case study is an analysis of the Emirates Airline as one of the organizations adversely affected by the Qatar Crisis. The paper presents an evaluation of the issue of intense competition and its possible effects on the performance of the company in the industry. This is followed by the evaluation of how the crisis affected the performance of the organization. The effectiveness of the approaches adopted by the organization in responding to the crisis is also presented


    Part 1: Case Study

    The Aviation Industry

    The aviation sector has grown significantly in the last two decades owing to the booming tourism sector and the push for greater connectivity amongst nations. The expansion of the middle-class in different economies has also fueled the growth following their affordability of the flights and desire to take holidays and business tours. The growth of the low-cost carrier segment of the airline industry has also contributed to its significant growth due to its reduction of flight fares and enhanced accessibility of the means of transport. The international air transport association estimates that a significant increase in the global commercial airline profitability will be reported in the future. The association forecasted that the profitability will increase from $ 34.5 to $ 38.4 billion in the year 2018. Greater demands for  flight services are likely to be observed in the future, thus an indication that more profits will be made by the players in the sector.

    As much as the industry has experienced massive growth and is likely to continue growing, significant challenges are likely to ensure. Intense competition is one of the challenges that are likely to be experience by the players in the industry. According to () the increasing demands presented has instigated many companies to venture in the sector with the hope of maximizing profits and overall performance. Most players come in as low –cost carriers posing significant challenges to existing players in the market. According to () since the year 2008, significant reduction in the flight fares have been observed, 0.9% reduction per year, due  to the emergence of low-cost carrier. The high cost of infrastructure needed in operating an airline does not go with the reduction in the fare prices. Also, the constant increase in oil prices presents a major challenge to players in the industry. Companies that focus on the provision of luxury flight services face serious competition from low-cost carriers. As much as there is potential for growth in the industry, an organization must be able to address the operations challenges brought in by the increasing oil prices and the competition instigated by the low-cost carriers to acquire a larger market share.

    Emirates Airline

    Emirates airline is one of the major airline players in the UAE. Since its inception in the year 1985, the company has expanded its operations to 96 destinations and about 56 countries across the world. The organization’s major operations are from Dubai International Airport; however, the company operates the longest flights in Texas, New York and Los angles.  Emirates Airline has reported significant growth since 1990. Better performance was also reported after the year 1994, when the company formed a partnership with American Airlines. Further agreements formed with various government including Sri Lankan Air Lines, Bangkok, Paris and Saudi Arabia amongst others have enhanced the accessibility of the markets to Emirates further improving its growth and performance in the sector. However, Emirates is still not the best player in the global sector based on its profitability and market share. This presents the need for the evaluation of the strategies employed by the company to enhance its performance in the international arena.

    Figure 1:

    Corporate Strategy                                          

    Emirates Airline has adopted a competitive business strategy to enhance its performance in the aviation sector. The company has adopted a strategic fuel partnership strategy to assist it deal with the fluctuations in oil prices. The company has been involved in various partnerships and deals with the oil producing firms to enjoy discounted oil prices, despite the fluctuations. Emirates airline has also invested in long haul flight services with the goal of meeting the presented demands and offering relatively lower prices to the target customers. However, the long haul service is still limited to few destinations, barring the company from fully reaching out to the customers in the middle and low classes of the society.

    Diversification is another strategy that has been employed by Emirates Airlines to enhance its competitiveness in the market. Besides the commercial airline services offered by the company, Emirates is currently offering cab services at various airports to ensure customers’ reach their destination safely. The company has also enhanced its airport surveillance and security to minimize cases of threats from terrorists’ and other criminal activities to create a positive image for the company.

    Despite adopting the above strategies to enhance its competitive advantage and overall performance, Emirates Airline still faces significant hurdles in the airline market. The entry of the new airlines in the sector that offers relatively cheap fare prices have not only intensified the completion in the aviation sector, but have also contributed to the low market share reported by the company. According to () emirates airline reported a significant decline in its market share following its inability to penetrate the new markets and develop the existing ones, due to the emergence of low-cost players in the sector. In Australia for instance, the company has reported a lower market share in comparison to other players such as Qantas airways, Jestar airways and Singapore Airlines. The International market share of Emirates is equally lower presenting the need for the company to device means of improving its competiveness to expand its market share.

    Competition in the Australian Aviation Industry

    Emirates airline has registered a relatively higher level of performance in its domestic market, the UAE. However, its performance and growth in the international market has been worrying. The company has constantly reported a decline in its market share over the years, with the company taking up a third position in terms of its market share in the previous financial year. The profitability of the company went down by 69% to $ 237 million in the year 2018, and its market share equally declined to 9.45% in the same year against Qantas’ market share of 16.6% in Australia.  The market share was even lower in other markets such as Saudi Arabia. Emirates is also yet to explore other international markets, that are dominated by other major players in the sector further contributing to its low market share in the international arena.

    As much as Emirates Airline has performed better in various destinations such as UAE, United Kingdom, India, and China, the company has performed poorly in Australia, and Saudi Arabia and other markets that are dominated by low cost carriers. The implications are significant reduction in the international market share of the company. As indicated below, the company has a low market share in relation to other major players in the Australian Aviation industry.




    Major Competitors in the Market

    British Airways

    British airways is a major airline in the international market. Apart from offering quality services to customers, the company focuses on the provision of highly differentiated services with the goal of availing the best inflight services to its customers. The company has an operating profit margin of 12-15% and a strong brand name that has contributed to its higher level of performance. Provision of high standard services, variety of choice and a focus on digitization and integration of information technology into various aspects of business operations and services provision are the major sources of competitive advantage for the company.

    Qantas Airways

    Qantas airways is the most popular and dominant airline in Australia. Since its inception in the year, 1920, the company has managed to maintain a large market share its international and domestic market. In Australia Qantas airways commands a larger market share since it owns about 26% of the market in the region. Together with its low-cost carrier, Jet Star, the company has managed to attract more passengers from different passenger classes contributing significantly to its enhanced market share.

    In reference to its financial performance, the company’s revenue is mostly acquired from passengers. As such, its corporate strategy is focused on offering quality experience to the customers. Qantas Airways main strategy is to offer safety to its customers to ensure they are satisfied with the services. Jet fuel contributes to 26% of the company’s expenditure; Qantas Airways has thus focused on the formation of partnership with suppliers to ensure the cost of the fuel is maintained at an affordable level. The highly satisfied passengers and the minimization of the cost of operations are the strategies employed by the company to enhance its competitiveness in the sector leading to its high market share.

    Singapore Airlines

    Singapore Airlines has also reported a higher level of profitability and performance in the aviation sector. The company focuses on the use of the most fuel-efficient fleet to minimize its costs of operations. The company also focuses on providing unique experience to all the customers in the different classes. The company offers suites, first class, business and economy classes to avail four different experiences to the customers. The results are low cost of production and enhanced customer satisfaction with the wide range of services offered.

    The Challenge

    As much as Emirates Airline commands a larger market share in UAE, the company’s international market share is lower than those of other players in the industry. This is more evident in the Australian market where the company has performed poorly and lost its market position to other smaller firms operating in the region. Much concern has been raised on how Emirates can improve its competitiveness and enhance its market share in the international market?

    Part 2:

    Analysis of the Competitive Landscape

    Porter’s five forces is used to analyze the competitiveness of Emirates Airline in the global market. Emirates Airline is a global company that operates in more than 80 countries across the world. The company has however reported a significant reduction in its international market share in the recent past.

    The threat of new entrants is one of the major factors that have contributed to the market share decline. As much as the airline industry has high entry barriers, low cost-carriers are considering venturing into the sector. The huge costs and infrastructure involved however lower the chances of starting a new airline in the business and the possibility of the new entrants to pose significant threats to the existing firms such as Emirates Airline.

    Buyers have a significant influence in the industry. The consumers have some influence on the flight price. Since the switching cost from one flight to the next is low, any airline must ensure that they meet the demands and needs of the customer. Quality, safety, and good experience are some of the service features that customer’ demands for. Emirates Airline emphasizes quality, but does not explicitly communicate on safety and unique experience, presenting the need for the same to ensure maximum customer satisfaction is achieved.

    The bargaining power of supplies is high since there are low limited number of airplane manufacturers, Airbua and Boeing. Most suppliers in the sector dictate the prices including the suppliers of jet fuel. Emirates survive the high supplier bargaining power by forming agreements with major supplies, collaborating with the manufacturers and forming partnerships to ensure the jet fuel prices are set at minimum value.

    The threat of substitute products is low, since consumers of flight services are likely not to replace the same with other means of transport. In fact, in international travels, air travel is the most preferred mode of transport for customers.

    There is intense competition in the international aviation sector; companies have to develop effective strategy to maintain financial supremacy and a larger market share. Improving the service quality, updating the aircrafts and focusing on efficient operation are approaches that can be adopted by the airlines to enhance their competitiveness. Emirates have focused on the provision of quality services; however, efficient operation is still a major challenge to the company. As a result, the company faces stiff competition from efficient operators in the global market such as Jet star Airlines. Other competitors such as British Airways, Qantas Airways, Singapore Airlines also performs better that Emirates, presenting the need for the company to improves its corporate strategy and enhance its competitiveness and growth in the sector.

    Market Growth and Development Strategies

    Market Penetration




    Product Development



    Market Development



    Different services – cab services

    Internet services

    Mobile usage on board










    Analysis of the Emirates Airline strategy shows that the company relies mostly on differentiation as its source of competitive advantage. The company ranks number one it terms of differentiation, Emirates was the first to offer additional services such as WIFI, usage of mobile phones on board and showering services. As much as the differentiation strategy has enabled the company to attract more customers, it is risky in nature since it calls for both product and market development. Emirates emphasized on product development and failed to focus on market development. As a result the company failed to offer the unique services into various market markets to increase its market share in the market. This explains the lower market share reported by the company in the global market.

    Market penetration strategy focuses on growing the market share of an organization using the existing products. The company may lower its prices to penetrate the



    Center for Aviation , 2018, 2018 Aviation Outlook: 2017 was aviation’s sweetest spot ever. Oil prices could spoil the party, Retrieved from

    Routes Online, 2018, Analysis: Australia’s international market growth, Retrieved from

Potential advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology

Genetic information has become part of our culture and it is difficult to tell the difference between unmodified and genetically modified food sources such as plant and animals. After reading this module’s material regarding vectors in biotechnology, consider the potential for nanotechnology and scientific advancement.

Research nanotechnology and its potential use in biotechnology. In one or two paragraphs, explain the potential advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology in health care, agriculture, or industry and discuss whether you would or would not support further research.

While nanotechnology is seen as the way of the future and it is a technology that a lot of individuals consider brings a great deal of benefits for those which will be utilizing it, there is nothing ever best where there will definitely be advantages and disadvantages to everything. The pros and cons of nanotechnology can be simply enumerated, and here are several of these:

Advantages of Nanotechnology

To enumerate the pros and cons of nanotechnology, let us initially manage with the great things this technology delivers:

Nanotechnology can critically impact lots of digital merchandise, treatments, and software. The areas that take advantage of the continuing growth and development of nanotechnology with regards to electronic digital merchandise include nano diodes, nano transistors, quantum computer systems, plasma screens, OLED,  and many others.

Nanotechnology also can benefit the electricity industry. The growth of far better power-making, energy-absorbing, as well as storage space items in smaller and more efficient units is achievable using this modern technology. This sort of stuff like electric batteries, gas cellular material, and solar panels may be developed small but can be made to become more effective with these technologies.

Another sector that can usually benefit from nanotechnology may be the production sector that may need to have materials like nanotubes, aerogels, nano dust, as well as other related things to generate their items with. These resources are frequently more powerful, more durable, and lighter than others which are not generated through the help of nanotechnology.

In the medical group, nanotechnology is likewise seen as a boon since these can type out creating what is referred to as smart medications. This helps treat people faster and without having the negative effects that other conventional prescription drugs have. Additionally, you will find that the studies of nanotechnology in medicine is now focusing on places like tissues regeneration, bone repair, immune system and in many cases treatments for these kinds of disorders like many forms of cancer, diabetic issues, and other life threatening diseases.

disadvantages of Nanotechnology

When taking on the advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology, you will additionally require to indicate what can be viewed since the negative area with this technology:

In the selection of negatives of the research along with its advancement may be the feasible reduction in careers inside the conventional farming and producing market. Additionally, you will discover that the creation of nanotechnology could also result in the crash of specific trading markets as a result of reducing the need for gas and gemstones due to the possibility of establishing substitute types of energy that are definitely more productive and won’t need using standard fuels. This could also suggest that since folks can now build products in the molecular degree, diamonds will even lose its value simply because it can now be bulk generated.

Atomic tools are now able to more reachable and designed to be effective and more destructive. These can also become more accessible with nanotechnology. Since these particles are extremely tiny, troubles can actually arise from your inhalation of such second dust, similar to the issues someone becomes from breathing in min asbestos dust. Presently, nanotechnology is very expensive, and building it may cost you a lot of money. It is also pretty hard to produce, which is probably why merchandise made using nanotechnology costs more.

Manufacturing Pros

Nanotechnology has already been generating new resources readily available that may reinvent a lot of aspects of development. For instance, nanotubes and nano dust, that are tubes and dust only a few atoms throughout, and aerogels, resources comprised of very light-weight and powerful supplies with amazing insulating attributes, could pave just how for new tactics and exceptional items. Additionally, robots that are only a few nanometers long referred to as nanobots, and nano factories could help construct novel components and physical objects.

Statement for Placement at the Migrant Center

My placement at the migrant center presented an opportunity for me to offer social services to the needy as well as improve my capabilities and skills in the area of social work. Despite my theoretical knowledge of social work as a general profession, I knew that the placement would give me a chance to enhance my practical skills in dealing with people from diverse backgrounds. Being an organization that receives migrants from different regions of the world, I was ready to embrace the various cultural beliefs and values presented so as to form good relationships with the migrants as well as other colleagues. As much as the diverse cultural background may be seen as a barrier to effective communication, I took it as an opportunity to improve my communication skills and not as a barrier to my effective participation in the organization.

The desire to meet new people and learn about their origin has been the driving force towards my wish to interact and develop good relationships with people from different backgrounds. Since my work at the center did not entail direct interaction with the clients, I was ready to take up any opportunity within the organization that will give me a chance to interact with the various immigrants and other stakeholders. This opportunity came knocking when I was requested to take part in the Harmony Day of Tafe celebrations on the 17th March. Despite the challenges presented in terms of the communication barriers and different beliefs, I managed to interact with more than 20% of the immigrants during this festivity. I focused on using the most suitable interpersonal communication medium to ensure that the information being conveyed is understood by all. As Knapp, Vangelisti, and Caughlin (2014) point out an effective communication medium will go beyond the communication barriers and eliminate any form of biases to support a smooth communication process between any parties. My capability to communicate and interact effectively with the immigrants was evident with the number of friends I managed to make and keep during and after the festivity.

My ability to interact freely with other students assigned to the placement also evident my capability in forming and maintaining good relationships within the workplace. My main role at the migrant center was to develop a logo and brochures for the company. This role did not just require knowledge in graphic designs and creativity, but also needed one to have effective interpersonal skills to engage properly with the other team members in a way that the stated goals will be accomplished. Having been assigned a team leader role, I had to portray effective communication skills that will enable me to lead the other members towards the achievement of the set aim. Based on my past knowledge in team management, and as reported by Wheelan (2014) engaging the team in a brainstorming session is one of the most effective approaches in enhancing their capability to effectively execute their roles. I, therefore, engaged the team in a brainstorming session where every individual participated fully in the design of the company logo. Apart from assisting in accomplishing the assigned role, this approach also supported my desire to building a good relationship with the other student that impacted positively towards our working relations throughout the placement period.

Apart from the basic information about my placement organization, that I researched, my engagement in the development of the organization’s brochures further enhanced my understanding of the practices undertaken by the company. In order to come up with an appropriate logo and comprehensive brochures, a proper understanding of the company’s settings, legislation, and the diverse cultures it deals with. As Lupton and Phillips (2015) report a proper logo should reflect the purpose and values of the organization as well as the needs and expectations of the clients that the company serves. As such, we were involved in the analysis of the organizational setting to clearly understand its purpose, policies, and the chain of command on task execution. I was also able to learn more about the various companies that work in collaboration with the migrant center to ensure that the needs of the refugees in Australia are met. The organization received most of its funding from the Australian government and respective state government grants. The organization also works in collaboration with other companies such as CARE Australia, ASRC Community, and Refugee Council of Australia to ensure that the needs of the migrants in Australia are met and that they are fully integrated into the society.

Ethical social work practice is one thing that was every evident at my placement. All the staff and any other individuals dealing with the client were expected to adhere to the profession’s integrity and uphold respect to all persons they interacted with as stated in the AASW practice standard (AASW, 2013). Having learned about the AASW code of conduct and ethics, I did not have a problem adhering to the code of conduct recommended by the organization. In fact, the situation presented an opportunity for me to exercise my theoretical understanding of the accepted ethics for any social worker in a practical setting. The resulting good relationship that I made with my colleagues and the clients all justify my ability to effectively put the learned social work ethical standards into practice.


Besides learning how to interact and communicate effectively with people from diverse cultures, my placement at the migrant center also enhanced my skills in leading others. By taking up leadership roles at the team levels, I managed to improve my supervision skills in social work by engaging a team of students into accomplishing the goal of developing a suitable logo and brochure for the organization. As documented by Matthews and McLees (2015) teamwork is likely to lead to the attainment of better results in any project if the said team is well managed. The author had also documented the challenges involved in the effective management of teams, stating the vital requirement of a robust team leader to ensure that the desired outcome is attained. I was not sure of having what it takes to be effective leaders, however, has taken up the role; I did my best to ensure the team accomplishes its goal. This role did not only enable be polished my leadership skills but equally gave me the confidence of being able to manage a diverse team regardless of the challenges involved. Indeed out the ability to adequately accomplish the team roles vindicate my ability to manage a diverse team dealing with social works.

Despite the challenges that I sometimes faced at my placement, the experience did more good than harm to me.  I did not only learn how to communicate and interact with people from diverse cultures, but I also had a grasp of the different values and beliefs of individuals from different nations of the world. I also manage to interact and develop a good working relationships with my colleagues as well as improve my leadership and supervisory skills that will still guide my future actions when involved in any social work activity.










AASW (Australian Association of Social Workers). 2013. Practice Standards. Available at:

Knapp, M. L., Vangelisti, A. L., & Caughlin, J. P. (2014). Interpersonal Communication & Human Relationships. Pearson Higher Ed.

Lupton, E., & Phillips, J. C. (2015). Graphic Design: The New Basics: Revised and Expanded. Chronicle Books.

Matthews, R., & McLees, J. (2015). Building Effective Projects Teams and Teamwork. Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development6(2), 20.

Wheelan, S. A. (2014). Creating effective teams: A guide for members and leaders. Sage Publications.


Wine and food matching: national and regional perspectives

Wine and food matching: national and regional perspectives.

Analyse and summarise the main concepts of the countries food matching using concrete examples of wines produced there & local dishes (from the area described as well as different wine styles, grape varieties from all over the country), critically discuss the main reason why an understanding of matching and exclusion of the region’s wine with a particular dish is essential. Discover classic wine producing techniques as well as modernist, how those affect the flavour of the wine produced and its pairing with food. Illustrate your answers with specific examples. Main pairing rules and cultural rules, as well as Asian, Indian (any kind of ethnic) food and different wine styles pairings are good to be mentioned.

(max. 1500 words)

Consult on the structure of the Essay the detailed induction presentation on eLearning:

Introduction, Pairing Approaches, Essay structure & examples (week 1) Style Guide – Academic Writing (General), includes:

  • Justified text (as seen on the text for these guidelines)
  • 1.5pt spacing (as seen on the text for these guidelines)
  • Harvard Style Referencing
    Explanation of the country under investigation Its sub-region and styles/blends of wines produced over there, here student can mention history of winemaking and various blends produced in the region, as well as statement of a famous chefs related to the region, wine experts working with and focusing on the region’s wines, any relevant statements regarding the current state of the wines in the region and its place in international gastronomic arena, pairings in restaurants around the globe.
    Introduction of the native food traditional for the area and localities around it: styles, traditional dishes, history, chefs, reworked traditional regional foods, flavours, ingredients, components, demonstration of understanding of the concept “what grows together – goes together”.
    Wine production and main production regions and major sub-regions which reflect various grape varieties blends, flavour characteristics of the wine styles

Main pairing rules and cultural rules as well as Asian food, ethnic food, contemporary food and different wine styles pairings are good to be mentioned.

Classification & requirements of the selected region wines, focus on various systems/vintage variations plus different wine styles. Concrete examples of regional food and various international foods pairings.

Congruent Pairings

In the congruent partnering, the meals and wines chosen will go over quite a few resources or preferences. This may be a sugary wine associated with a sugary plate, a red-colored wine using a buttery after style associated with a buttery spaghetti dish. The most important tip when producing congruent pairings is to ensure the red wine is not overwhelmed by the flavors of your food.

When this occurs it will make the taste in the vino turn out to be boring. The benefits of a congruent integration would be to permit the wines as well as the food to boost the taste of the other. Red-colored wine beverages are a fantastic head to while looking to produce congruent pairings. With aromas and tastes ranging from cherry to smoky, red wines are really different and very easy to match with like foods pairings. Have a window of your Syrah wines which is a total bodied and it will surely use a very similar flavor account of some of your favorite grilled lean meats, which makes it an excellent congruent coupling.

Complementary Pairings

On the flip side complementary pairings are based on foods and vino mixtures that talk about no ingredients or flavours, but alternatively accentuate the other person. The tastes in each are healthy by their contrasting components.

Rosé, White-colored, and Sparkling red wine make excellent choices for contrasting pairings. A sweet white wine paired with a spicy dish will allow the sugar in the wine to cool down and balance out the spiciness in the dish.

Another frequent contrasting coupling is white-colored wines with salty meals. The saltiness from your meals actually diminishes the sweet taste of the wine and brings out the wine’s fruity taste and fragrances. A window of Chardonnay or Pinot Grigio will combine perfectly with salty popcorn and especially well with fried meals.

If you find one simple, common tip that every seasoned diner diners know, it’s that red-colored wine beverages need to be associated with striking, flavored lean meats and that bright white wine must be paired with lighter meat (such as fowl or pork) and fish and shellfish. That’s the main reason why the normal, go-to container of red wine to get an excellent steak dinner is really a bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon, and why the classic white-colored wine to set with chicken or seafood is Chardonnay or Pinot Grigio.

Even so, you can find exclusions to the guideline. By way of example, an essential rule is basically that you should go with wine using the sauce and never the beef. Therefore, in case your daring, flavored meats is actually spicy, there are many more alternatives for a fantastic food items-vino partnering, anything from an equally “spicy” vino (like Syrah), with an off-dry Riesling, which is generally acknowledged to get excellent at taming the temperature of Asian and Indian meals. And the other excellent principle-of-thumb to find out is the fact reddish colored wine beverages are the best well-balanced with unhealthy recipes. Once more, this is a great reason why a good, delicious steak set so well with a dried out reddish colored wine.

Congruent versus. supporting flavors

With regards to food and red wine integrating methods, another approach is to consider “congruent” and “complementary” flavors. Congruent food products have lots of the exact same flavor compounds in popular, so they amplify the other person. The classic example is beef and fresh mushrooms. In contrast, contrasting flavors don’t have flavor substances in typical, to help you generate extraordinary stability by partnering flavours like lime and coconut.

Once you apply this strategy to pairing meals and vino, it means which you can use the flavor and flavour of any specific vino, and use it to make either a congruent or contrasting preference. Generally, there are six principal preferences that can be used for pairing foods and red wine: saltiness, level of acidity, sweet taste, resentment, fattiness and spiciness. Wine, naturally, are only able to be acid, sweet or bitter, so you do have a range of the way to improve all these likes. Red wines, for example, report greatest in resentment (as a result of higher tannin focus). Red-colored wine are usually moderate in acidity and reduced in sweetness. White, glowing and rosé wines report greatest in acidity, method in sweetness and lowest in resentment. And fairly sweet wine beverages (including Moscato) credit score maximum in sweetness, method in level of acidity and cheapest in resentment.

The Wine Breakdown

Bright white Vino, Reddish colored Vino, and Glowing Vino all have very diverse and complicated flavor information. It means there are actually plenty if not 1000s of alternative methods to learn the different pairing probabilities of dried-up white-colored wines to strong red wine. Here we are going to investigate the different tips and tricks when making pairings for certain sorts of wines.


Reflection Assignment 2: Meeting Essential VIII

 Reflection Assignment 2: Meeting Essential VIII

This week, reflect on ethical principles and your understanding of ethical decision-making frameworks as they have evolved over the course of your RN-BSN program at WCU. Identify specific ethical standards and moral conduct codes. How does your academic work support evidence of meeting the following?

Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values

  • Outcome #1:Demonstrate the professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct.

Review your past academic work, evaluate your effectiveness at meeting this program essential, and ponder the impact that this proficiency will have on your future.

Identify how you met the essential by referring to the assignment(s) specifically in your response. Additionally, reflect on and make connections between your academic experience and real-world applications.

Recommended: Refer to work you completed for NURS 521 Ethics in Heath Care and NURS 510 Policy, Organization, and Financing of Health Care, as well as other courses, to gather academic examples and evidence of having met this essential.

Your reflection should be 1 page and APA Style. Reference and cite any sources you use.


Personally, I built two peer-evaluation exercises into twentieth-century Theater this past season, and I produced an authenticity of it. Pupils for the reason that schools are employed in groupings all year round the organizations are positioned in several weeks (2-3). Each group prepares two essential world records (or even more – see my prior post for my reflections on overall performance courses) including a demo throughout the penultimate 7 days of type, all for shows. Moreover, we perform a lot of ad-hoc class sessions during distinct in-programs knowing exercise routines from the school for 12 months.

The peer evaluations this prior season got at the conclusion of each semester, and then in each scenario, I neglected the obvious: that students don’t realize how to qualify the other, and that they are (understandably) really uneasy doing the work. A lot less dedicated pupils who attach their groupmates on shared jobs are unlikely to own their steps (or perhaps to recognize them!), even though the hard operating lot might have few if any solutions to attract on so that you can take the way of measuring their group, as men and women and together, reasonably and precisely.

In addition, largely by year’s finish, the teams are packed with friends who wish to grade their buddy?  I’ve discussed this issue about the blog presently, and then in that publication, I noted how, initially blush, I assumed the peer examination journeyed properly … until it dawned on me that the two teams which had had severe troubles at different points in had not had the opportunity to look directly at those difficulties or speak about them with the troublesome team people concerned.

At this moment I recognized that, so that you can measure the evaluation approach entirely, I seriously found it necessary to question the scholars to tell me what had been beneficial regarding the exercise, and what was demanding. This is exactly what they explained: It was actually challenging to go over group concerns in a classroom placing – give men and women the option to get another space?

It was actually challenging because the team became close up on the season: students concerned about disconcerting dynamics or ratting our their friends Could perform a complete peer analysis at the conclusion of expression a single? (I truly messed in the December assessment, leaving virtually no time because of it before school broke up for your vacation.

Pupils could possibly be forgiven for failing to remember it happened!) Could they grade each other anonymously?

Folks don’t desire to address dilemma group of people participants to their facial looks Could I get individuals to feed to me, and after that I might eliminate the harsher comments and provide organizations with collated opinions? The next 2 of these tips, which are non-starters, in my opinion, are displaying: individuals are anxious about needing to perform grading.

They implicitly realize that it’s incredibly hard to do fair (uh huh!), but that’s the key reason why I think peer analysis is the ultimate teachable second, one of the couple of places where in-course job features a direct effect on the type of things we are inspired to do as citizens within a working democracy each day. The first three comments are, in this respect, even more eye-opening: they reveal the extent to which I need better to prepare students for the rigours of assessing themselves and each other.

I need to create a welcoming, inclusive space; I need to act as a mediator, without taking over the assessment discussion, in order to manage the group dynamic (and model good negotiating skills!); and I need to incorporate multiple self-assessment exercises into the year’s work (not just one! Not just two!) in order that students are fully prepared for the scale and significance of the task when it happens in April. I haven’t yet worked out the details of how I’m going to reshape the peer assessment task, but once I do and next year’s class is up and running I’ll report back on how it’s going here on the blog. I’m committed to doing peer assessment properly this coming year! Presentations.



Reflective Critical Analysis Instructions

The purpose of an RCA is to provide an in-depth exploration of your experience, and to demonstrate your professional growth, and ability to integrate evidence into practice.

  • Experience: Dementia/ Schizophrenia patient attended in the past (First year)
  • Relate with mental health understanding

RCA should be 4-5 pages



Clear identification of the concepts, experience, or central idea(s) that will be discussed in the paper



Description of the Experience

  • Clear and concise explanation of the experience.


Analysis of the Experience

  • Outcomes, rationale, and impact upon own/others’ behaviours and reactions questioned
  • Nursing literature, community health literature, RNAO best practice guidelines, CNO standards, and/or ways of knowing are incorporated – at least three references (one of which is a research article)

Ways of Knowing

Cue: How has this experience changed my ways of knowing?

  • Empirical – scientific
  • Ethical – moral knowledge
  • Personal – self-awareness and connection through life experience
  • Aesthetics – the art of what we do
  • Emancipatory – advocacy, awareness of injustice


  • Each idea links back to the central concepts, idea or experience introduced in the introduction.


Personal Areas for Development

  • Personal areas for development explored (Knowing how to help/treat mental health clients/patients)
  • Solid understanding of new knowledge demonstrated – Knowledge about mental health
  • Questions for future exploration proposed, if appropriate



  • Main points discussed throughout the body of paper summarized






  • Proper use of language and grammar
  • Well-organized and logical flow of ideas
  • Clear transitions between paragraphs
  • Proper use of APA 7 format and TURNITIN utilized


***Required documents

RNAOComponents of a Mental Status Assessment


  • Age (chronological age and whether person looks this age)
  • Sex, Race
  • Body build (thin, obese, athletic, medium)
  • Position (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling)
  • Posture (rigid, slumped, slouched, comfortable, threatening)
  • Eye contact (eyes closed, good contact, avoids contact, stares)
  • Dress (what individual is wearing, cleanliness, condition of clothes, neatness, appropriateness of garments)
  • Grooming (malodorous, unkempt, dirty, unshaven, overly meticulous, hairstyle, disheveled, makeup)
  • Manner (cooperative, guarded, pleasant, suspicious, glib, angry, seductive, ingratiating, evasive, friendly, hostile)
  • Attentiveness to examiner (disinterested, bored, internally preoccupied, distractible, attentive)
  • Distinguishing features (scars, tattoos, bandages, bloodstains, missing teeth, tobacco-stained fingers)
  • Prominent physical irregularity (missing limb, jaundice, profuse sweating, goiter, wheezing, coughing)
  • Emotional facial expression (crying, calm, perplexed, stressed, tense, screaming, tremulous, furrowed brow)
  • Alertness (alert, drowsy, stupor, confused)


  • Retardation (slowed movements)
  • Agitation (unable to sit still, wringing hands, rocking, picking at skin or clothing, pacing, excessive movement, compulsive)
  • Unusual movements (tremor, lip smacking, tongue thrust, mannerisms, grimaces, tics)
  • Gait (shuffling, broad-based, limping, stumbling, hesitation)
  • Catatonia (stupor, excitement)


  • Rate (slowed, long pauses before answering questions, hesitant, rapid, pressured)
  • Rhythm (monotonous, stuttering)
  • Volume (loud, soft, whispered)
  • Amount (monosyllabic, hyper-talkative, mute)
  • Articulation (clear, mumbled, slurred)
  • Spontaneity


  • Stability (stable, fixed, labile)
  • Range (constricted, full)
  • Appropriateness (to content of speech and circumstance)
  • Intensity (flat, blunted, exaggerated)
  • Affect (depressed, sad, happy, euphoric, irritable, anxious, neutral, fearful, angry, pleasant)
  • Mood (reported by patient/client)

Thought Content

  • Suicidal or homicidal ideations (intent, plan, access to means, time-frame)
  • Depressive cognition (guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness)
  • Obsessions (persistent, unwanted, recurring thought)
  • Ruminations
  • Phobias (strong, persistent, fear of object or situation)
  • Ideas of reference
  • Paranoid ideation
  • Magical ideation
  • Delusions (false belief kept despite no supportive evidence)
  • Overvalued ideas
  • Thought broadcasting, insertion or withdrawal
  • Other major themes discussed by patient/client

Thought Process

  • Coherence (coherent, incoherent)
  • Logic (logical, illogical)
  • Stream (goal-directed, circumstantial, tangential [diverges suddenly from a train of thought], looseness of associations, flight of ideas, rambling, word salad)
  • Perseveration (pathological repetition of a sentence or word)
  • Neologism (use of new expressions, phrases, words)
  • Blocking (sudden cessation of flow of thinking and speech related to strong emotions)
  • Attention (distractibility, concentration)


  • Hallucinations (auditory [including command, running commentary], visual, olfactory [smelling], gustatory [taste], tactile)
  • Illusions (misinterpretation of actual external stimuli)
  • Depersonalization
  • Déjà vu, Jamais vu


  • Orientation (time, person, place)
  • Memory (short-term, long-term)
  • Intellect
  • Abstract thought
  • Capacity to read and write
  • Level of consciousness


  • Awareness of illness (insight)
  • Ability to make a decision wisely considering pros and cons for a course of action

See the attachment for CNO best practice