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# Trading Strategies in reducing investment risks

Individual Assessment—Reducing Risk with Options

In this assignment students are requested to adopt different option strategies to reduce their investment risk in order to optimise the profits generated from their investment projects. In a nutshell this assessment is to teach students how to reduce/hedge risk with options.

Background:

In this assignment you work as a junior analyst at Carson Company and you are assigned to form options strategies in relation to the stock of IBM Corporation (IBM), a software company. In these two projects, you will give advice and data analysis to one of the executives at Carson Company.

In this project, you will suppose it is on 1 January 2019, and you will form trading strategies based on information available up to 1 January 2019. Afterwards, you will jump forward to 1 January 2020, and assess the profit from your options strategies, based on the stock price at this later date. In your answer, use European options on non-dividend-paying stock. Assume that the estimated volatility of IBM per annum is calculated as 30.5% (or 0.305). The IBM stock price on 1 January 2019 is 2370 pence. The 12-month sterling rate for LIBOR on 1 January 2019 is 1.5% (or 0.015)

1. Suppose you have a long position in the stock on 1 December 2019. How would you hedge against price declines for a one-year period, using puts, calls and spread options? [

1. On 1 December 2019 the price of IBM stock is 1923 pence. Calculate the payoffs for the strategies you chose in Q1a combined with the long position in the stock. Comment on your results.

# Assignment Instructions

For the project, student is required to understand the mechanisms of using options to hedge risk based on the circumstances set in the project.

For the first question of the project, student will need to devise relevant options strategies for the situations described. Students will therefore be required to calculate the price of the required call and put options, and of the overall strategy. Students will find it useful to calculate by hand or Excel the prices of the options using the Black—Scholes—Merton model the in the first instance. For sake of simplicity, use European options on non-dividend-paying stock. For each option strategy they should explain carefully what the strategy is attempting to achieve, including an indication, in general terms, of what the payoffs from the strategy might be (in terms of stock price decreases). They should base their analysis on the information provided up to 1 January 2019, and form strategies for the year to 1 January 2020. They do not need to conduct additional research on IBM to write your assignment. They should state the initial payments or receipts in respect of each strategy.

For the second question of the second project, they need to assume it is 1 January 2019, and they do not know the price of the stock in one year’s time. However, for the purpose of this question, imagine it is 1 January 2018, and they do not know what is about to happen in the coming year.

# Computer science; Java, linux

Question 1: (15 marks)

Distributed systems

This question is fifteen (15) marks worth.

The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) utility program is commonly used for copying files to and from other computers. These computers may be running at the same machine or at different machine. FTP is a general protocol that works on UNIX systems as well as a variety of other (non-UNIX) systems.

Nowadays, most operating systems and communication programs include some form of an FTP utility program, but the commands might differ slightly.

Today almost, all operating systems come shipped with a type of FTP program including windows OS.

This short TMA requires an implementation of a File Transfer Protocol using TCP sockets in JAVA. Only one command needs to be implemented in this program which is:

• PUT: Transfer a text file from client to a server

The client specifications for “PUT file name” command [5 marks]:

• The file name should be passed as argument to the client program when executed
• The client should connect to the server using TCP sockets on port “4000”, you can assume that the server is running on the local host machine.
• First, the client should send the command “PUT file name” to the server.
• Thereafter the client sends the text file line by line.
• Once the file transfer is finished the client closes the socket connection.
• You need to print on the client screen messages to show the progress of the file transfer command execution.

The Server specification for “PUT” command [5 marks]:

• The server should listen on port “4000”.
• Once a client connects to the server, the server should verify the command to be “PUT” and extract the file name. Then create a local file using the received file name.
• Thereafter the server start receiving the file from the client and write it in the file.
• Once the file transfer is finished the server closes the socket connection and the local file.
• You need to print on the server screen messages to show the progress of the file transfer command execution.

In order to allow the server to serve multiple clients at the same time, the server should be modified into a multithreaded application, where each client request is served using a single thread.

Modify the FTP server by adding the flowing specification [5 marks]:

Once a client connects to the server, the server should create a thread to receive the client command and the file, then it should wait immediately for another client connection request.

Question 2: (5 marks)

Bash Shell script

This question is five (5) marks worth.

Write a bash shell script that does the following [4 marks]:

Expects three arguments on the command line: the server name, the client name applications and the file name to be sent.

It checks if the number of arguments equals to three, if not it displays an error message.

If the number of arguments is correct, it executes first the server followed by the client and then it displays the running processes including the thread.

Finally, it lists the file and folders in the current directory.

Execute the bash script and provide a screen shot [1 mark].

Either use a virtual machine running Linux image or use the Cygwin https://www.cygwin.com/ tool on windows platform to run your bash shell script.

Format and structure of the deliverables:

We expect a NetBeans project containing all the required implementations including the bash script file and the screen shots in one zip file to be uploaded.

Use the following naming convention for your zip file:

“BranchName_YourName_yorID_STMA_M251_Sp202.zip”

End of Assessment

# Environmental issues and ethics in business

Environment issues notes

1. Q) What are areas that businesses need to consider in terms of the environment?

ACTIVITY 1:

• Consider environmental issues of either AIR, LAND or WATER that need to be addressed and identify sustainability initiatives created by the business/organisation.

What SPECIFICS can you say about the initiative. A few questions to help:

1. When did/will the initiative start?
2. Is it global, local, regional?
3. How big is the problem being addressed – be specific?
4. How successful has it been?
5. What model of sustainability do you think the initiative following – Market, Regulatory or Sustainability approach? Explain
6. Which stakeholders least benefit from the initiative?
7. Can you think of any (potential) unintended consequences?

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Write a brief feedback responding to the various questions (and more you might raise) and include useful links found.

Submit to Moodle or review during class

ARTICLE:    Eco- Business – Could the coronavirus outbreak be sustainability’s big break?

VIDEOS:

ACTIVITY 2:

Marketing to the Base of the Pyramid

In his landmark book business scholar C. K. Prahalad details the business opportunities that exist for firms that are creative and resourceful enough to develop markets among the world’s poorest people. Done correctly, marketing to the 4 billion people at the base of the global economic pyramid would employ market forces in addressing some of the greatest ethical and environmental problems of the 21st century.

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Obviously, helping meet the needs of the world’s poorest people would be a significant ethical contribution. The strategy involves another ethical consideration as well: A market of this size requires environmentally sustainable products and technologies. If everyone in the world used resources and created wastes at the rate Americans do, the global environment would suffer immeasurably. Businesses that understand this fact face a huge marketing opportunity.

Accomplishing such goals will require a significant revision to the standard marketing paradigm. Business must, in Prahalad’s phrase, “create the capacity to consume” among the world’s poor. Creating this capacity to consume among the world’s poor would create a significant win–win opportunity from both a financial and an ethical perspective.

Prahalad points out that the world’s poor do have significant purchasing power, albeit in the aggregate rather than on a per capita basis. Creating the capacity to consume among the world’s poor will require a transformation in the conceptual framework of global marketing and some creative steps from business. Prahalad mentions three principles as key to marketing to the poor: affordability, access, and availability.

Consider how a firm might market such household products as laundry soap differently in India than in the United States. Marketing in the United States can involve large plastic containers, sold at a low per-unit cost. Trucks transport cases from manufacturing plants to wholesale warehouses to giant big-box retailers where they can sit in inventory until purchase. Consumers wheel the heavy containers out to their cars in shopping carts and store them at home in the laundry room.

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The aggregate soap market in India could be greater than the market in the United States, but Indian consumers would require smaller and more affordable containers. Prahalad therefore talks about the need for single-size servings for many consumer products. Given longer and more erratic work hours and a lack of personal transportation, the poor often lack access to markets. Creative marketing would need to find ways to provide easier access to their products. Longer store hours and wider and more convenient distribution channels could reach consumers otherwise left out of the market.

So, too, can imaginative financing, credit, and pricing schemes. Microfinance and microcredit arrangements are developing throughout less developed economies as creative means to support the capacity of poor people to buy and sell goods and services. Finally, innovative marketing can ensure that products are available where and when the world’s poor need them. Base-of-the-pyramid consumers tend to be cash customers with incomes that are unpredictable. A distributional system that ensures product availability at the time and place when customers are ready and able to make the purchase can help create the capacity to consume. Prahalad’s approach—tied to moral imagination discussed previously—responds both to the consumers and to the corporate investors and other for-profit multinational stakeholders.

1. Do you think that business firms and industries have an ethical responsibility to address global poverty by creating the capacity to consume among the world’s poor? Do you think that this can be done?
2. What responsibilities, ethical and economic, do firms face when marketing in other countries and among different cultures?
3. Imagine that you are in the marketing department of a firm that manufacturers a consumer product such as laundry detergent or shampoo. Describe how it might be marketed differently in India.

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For each question, where appropriate consider:

• What are the key facts relevant to your judgment?
• What ethical issues are involved in a firm’s decision to market its products among the world’s poor by creating the capacity to consume?
• Who are the stakeholders?
• What alternatives does a firm have with regard to the way in which it markets its products?
• How do the alternatives compare; how do the alternatives you have identified affect the stakeholders?

ACTIVITY 3: OPTIONS

1. Research corporate sustainability reports. How many corporations can you find that issue annual reports on their progress toward sustainability? Can you research a company that does not and explore why not (perhaps through its critics), or whether it has plans to change?

1. Investigate what is involved in an environmental audit. Has such an audit been conducted at your own college or university? In what ways has your own school adopted sustainable practices? In what ways would your school need to change to become more sustainable?

1. Do you believe that business has any direct ethical duties to living beings other than humans? Do animals, plants, or ecosystems have rights? What criteria have you used in answering such questions? What is your own standard for determining what objects count, from a moral point of view?

# Boeing: free cashflow growth

Boeing is the world’s largest aerospace company and leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners, defence, space and security systems, and service provider of aftermarket support. As America’s biggest manufacturing exporter, the company supports airlines and U.S. and allied government customers in more than 150 countries. Boeing products and tailored services include commercial and military aircraft, satellites, weapons, electronic and defence systems, launch systems, advanced information and communication systems, and performance-based logistics and training.

Question

You have been provided with a spreadsheet of historical financial data which you can use to forecast the free cashflow for the next five years and produce a two stage DCF (discounted cash flow) valuation. The yellow cells are for you to forecast. I have done the forecasts for 2020 / 2021.

You will need to find the appropriate beta (unlevered) and risk-free rate. The return on the market to be used is 7%.

The answer should be in report format with all key assumptions to free cashflow growth forecasts explained. The report must contain a BUY or SELL recommendation. The report should include a 3-year performance chart with Lockheed Martin as the competitor and the S&P 500 as the market.

(60 marks)

From the share data tab and your research, outline Boeing’s share repurchase scheme and explain why companies buy their own shares. Calculate the average price paid for the repurchased shares and comment on the impact of the repurchase scheme.

(15 marks)

The coronavirus has put significant financial strain on many companies. Describe the possible ways in which Boeing has or will be able to access additional capital, how will each option impact shareholders. Rank the different options in order of cost to the company (shareholders).

# The long-term effects of Hurricane Sandy before, during and After, the storm, to both infrastructure and human life

The topic of the paper must be a significant Emergency Management related issue and come from one of the chapters of your course textbook. I must see references within your paper from your textbook that supports your paper. However, use the topic from the textbook and the correlating references only as a start, as the bulk of your paper should be derived from quality outside research and references. I give extra consideration and appreciation for students who “localize” their issue to their state or region, or in others words, who “bring it home.” The paper itself should be written as though you were preparing it for a presentation in front of emergency management practitioners, with only superficial knowledge of the issue. This cannot be a topic either whole or in part utilized for any other paper in any other course. Remember that you must submit this paper to the Turnitin Drop Box. Trust that high similarity scores will simply not be accepted and/or will be graded accordingly in conjunction with this assignment

By the third week, each student will provide me with a one paragraph topic proposal, for my approval, of the specific emergency management topic selected. If you have difficulty finding an issue, I will guide you. While the summary allows me to give you individual feedback early on, I encourage you to touch base with me about your research as needed. Your proposal may also be in the form of a rough draft of your paper which adheres to the required outline that clearly shows me you are progressing well and on the right track.

Final papers must follow the format below. Include the following headings in your Final Paper: Introduction, Background/History, Analysis, Alternatives, Recommendations (if any) Conclusion.

1. Introduction

In this section you should specifically identify and define the emergency management issue you are studying and outline its importance. You can also use this section to limit the issue (i.e., describe the aspects of the issue that you will not touch upon).

1. Background/History

In this section you should briefly describe the history of the issue, literature review, trends and its current status. You can also provide context by describing relevant developments in other localities, states or countries. Using the literature, identify and define the principles and strategies of your topic that create attention toward it.

III. Analysis

In this section, you should get to the heart of the matter, choosing from two or more of the following to assist in your analysis: Contrast the roles played by different levels of government, international, and volunteer organizations in their response to counter and combat your specific topic; differentiate between ethical and unethical attitudes and actions regarding the execution of practices associated with your homeland security topic; identify the characteristics, ideologies, motives and behaviors of various extremist and terrorist groups associated with your topic; understand how the emergency management related organization is lead and managed in relation to your topic.

1. Alternatives

Most Issues have some alternatives. In some cases there may be essentially two options (“yes, we should do this”, and “no, we should not”). With each alternative you must also specifically describe advantages and disadvantages of the proposed alternative.

1. Recommendations/Conclusion

In this section you have an opportunity to provide limited personal reflection on your topic, insofar as recommendations toward improvement of current practices are concerned. You must be specific about how you reached your conclusions and on what evidence you based your recommendation. Summarize your paper and wrap up with some closing comments.

NOTE: Support all information with academically qualified references; however, emphasis should also be placed on original thought. The goal of the paper is give you the experience of identifying and defining the practices, principles, dilemmas, strategies, etc. that surround emergency management practices and issues.

Submission Requirements: The paper should be typed, double-spaced, 1” margins, and must be no less than eight pages in length (not including title page, abstract, works cited section, and any supplementary material), which means I should not receive a paper less than 11 pages in length . Full citations are expected, with a minimum of five academic sources, one of which can be your textbook (Wikipedia is not an academic source.) Cite all research references using the APA citation style. Papers are evaluated based on the students’ ability to synthesize the material and provide a critical analysis of the emergency management issue. This paper should reflect college-level work in content, appearance, organization, grammar, and effort. Please refer to the Academic Integrity Section of this syllabus for specific information regarding submission of this and all other course assignments.

# Marketing Strategy and Innovation

## Assignment topic:

“Over the last decade social media play a seminal role in the development of innovative marketing practices across different types of organizations. These innovations have radically changed markets, consumer expectations, and how marketing is organised and implemented. Critically discuss how social media are employed for the development of digital marketing and promotional strategies by a) drawing on relevant academic theories and b) using relevant examples from an organization of your choice.”

Approaching the question

A full answer to the question will require reflection on the issues that you have encountered

throughout the module. It is important to bear in mind that the content of your answer will depend on the argument that you wish to put forward in answer to the question and not solely on the concepts that the question explicitly identifies. You will be expected to relate theories related to marketing, strategy and social media from the module to the assignment topic and make appropriate recommendations, thus showing an understanding of strategic/digital marketing principles and practice.

1. You are expected to demonstrate an understanding of marketing theories and practice. You

have to demonstrate evidence of reading and understanding of how social media shape promotional strategies and apply these views to an example of an organization with which you are familiar. In terms of word limitations 50% of your assignment should a) draw upon relevant academic theories and you have to use 50% so as to use an example b) from an organization of your choice. The organization can be a small, medium sized, a non-for-profit organization or a large corporation.

1. Please remember that your assignment should NOT be structured around your own opinions and experiences from marketing practices but you should use relevant academic theories which assist you to critically discuss the assignment question above.

1. Although it makes sense to look for concepts and authors discussed in your core module text that you can apply to the assignment, you will be expected to draw upon library readings (e.g. academic and trade journals, beyond your main textbooks) to support your answer. Keep in mind that one of the key criteria for assessing this piece of work is evidence of reading, understanding and discussing relevant academic theories.

1. This means that if you make an argument or a point about something related to marketing practice, it should be backed up with a citation from a good reference that shows how prior research suggests that your point is valid one.

1. Students who do this intelligently, and from a broad a range of (ideally academic) sources as possible, will have the opportunity to gain a high mark.

1. In the Introduction, you should set out your main themes and intentions: describe the issue you are addressing, identify its main components, and indicate what you are going to do in the body of your essay.

1. Break down your arguments into smaller parts – use this as a basis for the main Discussion part of your essay that will then be divided up into several sections or paragraphs (you may want to have a sub-heading title for each section of the question).

1. Summarise your arguments briefly in a Conclusion. What is the main significance and implications of what you have been saying?

1. Make sure you read your Programme Handbook carefully on issues of submission, essay writing, referencing and plagiarism.

1. ALL material that you use should be referenced appropriately. This includes any material borrowed from websites or corporate brochures. Information on referencing is available in your Programme Handbook.

## Assignment Background

You work with the pricing actuary at Cash for Claims, a large Property/Casualty insurer. The CEO has some questions based on the most recent pricing analysis and the pricing actuary has asked you to assist with the response. Task #1 The proposed rates were not in the range the CEO expected given the pricing analysis. The CEO has asked the pricing actuary to verify the total projected loss cost excluding potential large storm losses for 2020. In turn, the pricing actuary has asked you to independently calculate the projected costs. All policies are 12-month policies. The rates will take effect July 1, 2020 and will be in effect for one year. In 2017 there was a large storm resulting in an additional 230 storm-related claims averaging 30,000 each. The company was able to settle 40% of all total claim liabilities relating to those claims within 2017 with the remainder being paid out in 2018. All other claims are completely settled by the end of year 4. The pricing actuary determined trend factors using the least squares method and determined the projected loss cost based on the loss costs for 2018 and 2019 with weightings of 40% and 60% respectively. You are to use the same methodology. The data and underlying model are in the Excel worksheet . Your response should include the projected loss costs for 2018 and 2019. Please show your work in an appendix.

After agreeing that the previous pricing analysis was accurate, the CEO commented that the initially proposed rates per 1,000 have increased much higher than both the trend you had determined and the overall industry trend for losses. Discuss two to four factors that may be driving this. What possible actions could the insurer take to reduce rates for next year and beyond? What are the considerations that would need to be made with each of these actions? Please format your response as an email to the CEO.

# English Grammar:analysis and interpretation of linguistic data.

In this assignment you will write an essay of 1000 words based on analysis and interpretation of linguistic data. The assignment assesses your ability to accurately describe and interpret linguistic data. It relates to your study of Blocks 1 and 2, and 3 and represents 20% of the overall continuous assessment score (OCAS).

The assignment consists of three parts, each of which consists of a series of steps.

Part 1: Choosing two texts

Part 2:  Grammatical analysis

• Step 1: Reading the texts
• Step 2: Taking initial notes about the texts (not for submission)
• Step 3: Analyzing the texts
• Step 4: Writing up your interpretation (1000 words)

Part 1: Choosing two texts

Choose two media reports/articles on the same event/topic; one report/article from a newspaper/magazine published in English in Britain or the United States and one from an Arab newspaper/magazine published in English (e. g. Kuwait Times, Gulf Times, etc.).

The texts you choose should be 200-250 words in length and should also be RECENT; i.e. published over the last 2-4 weeks. You can access most daily newspapers or magazines on the internet.

You should expect to spend a reasonable amount of time selecting your texts, as your choice of text will potentially affect the quality of your answer.  Do not be afraid to reject your initial choice if you come across something better, since you will inevitably have gained insights from the process of selection. However, you need to remember to leave yourself enough time to spend on the analysis of your chosen texts.

Part 2: Grammatical analysis

Read carefully the two texts that you chose. Your assignment is to write a linguistic comparison of the two texts of 1000 words which evidences and explains the different ways in which the two newspapers represent the same event. Note that you do not need to write anything for this step.

Step 2: Making initial notes about the texts

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Make some notes on what you notice about the texts and how they differ in terms of the way in which they represent the same event/topic. This will provide you with a set of questions or hypotheses which you can explore. You will not be assessed on this step and you should not include your notes in your submission.

Step 3: Analyzing the two texts

Analyze the texts, focusing on some lexicogrammatical choices relating to field. It will help you if you divide the texts into clauses using clause boundaries:  || indicate a boundary for an independent or dependent clause; [[…]] indicate embedded clause boundaries; and << … >> indicate interrupting clause boundaries. Please note that there is inevitably some variation in how grammarians analyze clauses, so don’t worry if you would have made slightly different choices (for the purposes of this TMA you should follow the clause analysis presented in the module textbooks).  Below are some suggestions as to what you might want to focus on, but you can look at other features you feel are relevant or significant:

• process types
• participant types
• voice (i.e. passive/active)
• noun groups
• choice of lexis
• circumstance types
• noun groups/phrases
• ….

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It will help you demonstrate knowledge and skills in grammatical analysis if you use color-coding or another kind of annotation system to mark up the texts. You should display your analysis in tables

Step 4: Writing up your interpretation

Drawing on the parts of your analysis that you find most illuminating, write an essay in a word document of up to 1000 words (not including the appendix) on what the analysis reveals about the main similarities and differences between the two texts. Relate your discussion where possible to the context of the texts as this relates to the register variable of field (that is, the topic being discussed, how it is being represented, and why). Your interpretations must relate to your analysis (Step 3). For instance, if you have focused on the choice between active/passive voice and process types, you will discuss the effects of these choices. You should include examples from the texts in your interpretation to support and evidence the specific points you are making. You will need to be selective in the data that you include. Make sure that you select the data that relates to and supports your interpretation (Step 3). If you include too much data, this will detract from your ability to put together a clear and convincing interpretation.

You should write up to 1000 words.

Important notes:

1. You should write an introduction to the TMA. You should also write a conclusion to the whole TMA at the end in which you sum up what you have done in the TMA and state your own evaluation and opinion of the TMA.
2. Make sure you use a good number of references for your TMA from any source from which you should use relevant in-text well referenced citations/quotations to support your discussions, explanations and arguments to make your TMA well researched, well argued, and more convincing. This will help you get a better mark. (see the Assessment Guide on referencing)
3. In an appendix attach a photocopy or a printout of the two texts you have used for analysis.

# Relationship and partnership in food supply

Regarding the term project:

The grade for the report will be determined based on its quality:

1. Is the paper comprehensive? You are expected to read and analyze 10-15 articles.
2. Is there an Introduction-development-conclusion structure?
3. Is the connection from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph, and section to section logical? Is there a logical flow in the paper? Is it easy to follow?
4. Are you showing critical thinking/strategic analytical skills especially in conclusion or just narrating things?
5. Is the grammar and structure of the sentences accurate?
6. Is it spell checked? I always get a couple “their” instead of “there” or vice versa.

The following is relevant to all of you but especially to those students who will work on trust, relationship and partnership topics. I eventually what to develop a survey given in the link and pdf file below. This survey is measuring the suppliers’ satisfaction of auto manufacturers. Similarly, I want to measure satisfaction of farmers, processors, and producers of agriculture products of their buyers like manufacturers and/or wholesalers/retailers.  For example, what do peanut farmers  think of Peter Pan and what does Peter Pan think of Wal Mart.

https://societyofautomotiveanalysts.wildapricot.org/resources/Documents/SAA%20-Presentation-5-16-17_Henke.pdf

The Working Relationship Index has 5 components with questions on page 2. Our survey may have similar or a different number of components with several questions. For example, “Trust” will be one of these components. Your research should shed some light into what the other components and questions there should be.

Format

• The reports should be type-written, 1 ½ spaced.
• The same font style and size, preferably Calibri 12, should be used throughout the paper.
• Margins should be 1” for top, bottom, left and right.
• Page number should be present at the bottom of each page.
• There is no predetermined length of report.

# Essay: argumentative essay on contemporary stories

Assignment: For this assignment you will need to write about one of three contemporary stories
that—in different ways—dramatize the relationship between East and West in an increasingly
interconnected world.
Your task is to write a thoughtful, carefully-argued paper in response to one of the following prompts.
1. Discuss the challenges Rifaat’s story “My World of the Unknown” poses for its audience.
What sorts of background information might Western readers need to make sense of the
story? Are there ways in which the story challenges Muslim attitudes about women,
sexuality, etc.?
2. Discuss Rushdie’s treatment of identity in “Chekov and Zulu.” In what ways are the main
characters torn between East and West? (Hint: You may find it useful to learn about the term
“hybridity” as it appears in post-colonial studies.) How do they resolve this conflict?
3. Can we read “TV People” as a story about Westernization? If so, what point does it make?
(Hint: you may want to think about the manner of the story, and not just its matter. Why do
people often call Murakami Kafkaesque?)
Length, Format, and Documentation:
➢ Double-space, leave 1” margins, and use a readable font such as 11 or 12 pt. Times Roman.
➢ You must use at least 2 sources (other than the texts themselves) for this paper. Be sure to
use correct MLA format for documentation. Lest this seem an imposing requirement, keep in
mind that research on an author’s life or the characteristics of a different culture will satisfy