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Monthly Archives: January 2020

Are adults more likely to held a 4-year old child who is crying and apparently lost when the adult is alone, or when there are bystanders present

Step 1: Design a simple experiment that could answer this question

Step 2: Make sure to label the levels of the independent variable, the dependent variable and any potential confounds

Once you’ve answered this question go to part and follow the step there

Part 2

Step 1: review the experiment you designed in part 1, Make sure to include the design with your submission

Step 2: Now review the section, sources of bias in psychological research on pg 14-21 particularly figure 1.1

Step 3: What are two example of bias that you can spot in your research? Don’t feel bad about it-it happens to everyone how could you address or correct those biases

Step 4: using the information from the sources of Bias in psychological research section redesign your experiment to be as gender-fair as possible

Respond to the following questions

What are two obstacles that researchers might face in designing and conducting gender-fair and/or feminist research?

What is the importance of conducting gender-fair research?

What about if we talk sometime like how my family and I took custody of my three little cousins

Speech Outline

Basic Introduction

Contested child custody and parenting disputes are common occurrence in petitioned matrimonial matters. In most instances, a notion is held that the courts will decide and give custody based on the determination of what is in the child’s best interest. While custody dispute involving legal parents is rather a straightforward process, the issue is more complicated when a non-parent seeks custody of minors over the objection of a non-custodian legal parent. You have to convince the courts that you are a more capable guardian than the existing parent. As much as a presumption of custody may exist in the favor of the legal parent, from my family’s experience, I have learnt that a proof of child neglect and abandonment and having a long-standing relationship with the child is a sure way of winning third-party custody dispute.

One of the major tasks in winning a custody dispute between a legal parent and a third party is to clearly show a convincing evidence of parental abandonment and neglect

Main point

In our case, my aunt was the custodian of my three cousins before her demise following a terminal illness

She gained the legal custody of the children after a marriage separation that ended in a divorce

Even though the husband was a non-custodian parent he had the rights to offer upkeep and visit the children

Nevertheless, he was never involved in their lives after the divorce

The most tangible evidence was his failure to visit the children and pay school fees as was demanded by the court

Presenting this evidence in court enabled by parents to prove that indeed he had neglected and abandoned his children contrary to the demands of the court

Apart from just showing clear evidence of parental neglect I have also learnt that it is important to prove that it is in the best interest of the children that they stay with you

Main point 2

Having taken in the children during the time when my aunt was sick, we had developed a strong bond and operated as one big family

Our interactions during their stay made them part of the family and were treated equally

A proof of care is evident when my parents paid for their school fees and offered other basic needs whenever my aunt was incapable or was ill

In essence, my family had taken up the parental role and enhanced the physical and psychological wellbeing of the children leading to the long-lasting relationship developed.

A proof of a possible serious psychological harm to the children is also another approach to winning third party child custody dispute since it can deprive the legal parent the custody

Main point 3

The failure of my cousins’ father to execute his parental roles and his poor relationship with the kids is an indication of a probable emotional torture if he was to be awarded the custody

The possibility of him showing much care and love now to the children is minimal

My family’s assertion that the kids are likely to suffer psychologically was a further justification for them to be awarded the custody.

Accepting the death of their mother and dealing with the grief was in itself a significant emotional trauma, the kids desired a family that will not just take care of their basic needs, but also offer emotional support


Winning the custody of children as a third party, may be difficult since legal parents are given an upper hand in the case, however, as long as there is a proof of abandonment and possible psychological harm to the children, wining the third party custody case is possible. Having a long lasting relationship with the children is an added and advantage, and will make the process easier for probable third party custodians.

semantic textual similarity with Metaphor

Write an essay on semantic textual similarity with Metaphor


Discourse analysis refers to the analysis of language that goes beyond the sentence constructed in an article. This kind of analysis is different from the various types of analysis that are typical of modern linguistics and are majorly concerned with the study of grammar (Coulthard, 2014). Discourse analysis is also different from the study of the smaller bits of language such as meaning (semantics), sound (phonetics) or order of words (syntax). Discourse analysis therefore entails the study of larger portions of language as they flow in a particular study (Fairhurst & Uhl-Bien, 2012). The current paper presents the discourse analysis presented for the information written by Finlay (2000) on strategic management. The paper provides a detailed meaning of the term discourse analysis followed with the identification of the various discourses observed in the text. A discussion on alternative discourses and their probable effects on the understanding of the texts in the event that they are adopted are also presented.

Discourse and Discourse Analysis: Meaning and definition

A number of scholars have presented different meaning and definition to the term discourse and discourse analysis. According to Fairclough (2013) discourse is a set of utterances that constitutes a speech the perspective of verbal communication. Recent development have however seen the term discourse gain additional meaning in the context of written communication, thus discourse is both spoken and written (Gee, 2015). A discourse and text have been used synonymously; however, Coulthard (2014) has indicated that the two terms are different and that there is a distinction between a discourse and a text. A text is used to fulfill the function of conveying some meaning. On the other hand, a part from just presenting the meaning, a discourse has certain social functions since it is seen as a transaction between the speaker and the listener.

Discourse analysis refers to the study of signifiers and words, including the study of the structure and form of the words, as well as the interpretation and meaning of the discursive phrases. Discourse analysis is the process through which the reader’s mind work on the linguistic features of the information presented to grasp the intended meaning of the writer. Therefore, through discourse analysis, the reader is able grasp and understands the information communicated by the writer.

Identified Discourses

The language used

Formal language is used by Finlay throughout the text to convey the information to the readers. The author uses more complex and jargon language such as “The golden adage “stick to your knitting’ become an epitaph”, “aggravating necessity”. It is not a guarantee that all the potential readers of the information presented by the author are highly educated and conversant with the sophisticated language use. To some readers, the jargons used may be complex and bare them from gaining knowledge and understanding of the information being communicated. The author has also used complex sentences throughout the text making it further complex to be understood by individuals without an advanced level of vocabulary. Making an assumption that the readers will have knowledge for any technical language is not a justification for the use of the complex and jargon language. The author needed to have considered the use of alternative words that can be understood by a wide range of audience and not just highly-learned individuals who are capable of understanding the technical terms used.

Chapter Content

In his writing on the influence and importance of stakeholders in strategic management, Finlay has only banked on the information presented by other scholars. His emphases are on the information presented by Campbell and Argenti in relation to the topic. The author has focused on analyzing the information presented by the two scholars on the influence of the stakeholders in strategic management and the role that different kinds of the stakeholders have in strategic management. The information presented is basically a comparison and a critique of the information presented by the two scholars. It is vital that Finlay identifies his stance in this topic. As Coulthard (2014) indicates, the current text is his own writing hence the readers needs to know his perception on the influence that the different kinds of stakeholders have on strategic management. Otherwise, the information provided is considered as directly borrowed from the writings of the other two scholars.

The introduction section in any chapter is important to guide the reader through the subsequent section. As Bloor & Bloor (2013) indicates, a proper introductory section will avail information on the contents of the chapter and the flow of the information to be presented. This chapter by Finlay (2000) has no introductory section as such the reader has no idea of whatever is to be communicated in the chapter. The author assumes that the reader will guess the possible content of the chapter after the provision of the chapter title. As much as the title is given as “strategic management” the author needs to have included the introduction section to guide the reader on the contents of the chapter and how they are to be presented since not all readers are conversant with the term strategic management.

The chapter subheadings are also used to allow for easy navigation through the texts. The readers are able to know the chapter contents and what the author is communicating by just looking at the subheadings. In the texts provided, the author has provided subheadings that reflect the subthemes to be discussed under the topic strategic management. However, the flow of the themes does not provide an easy opportunity for the reader to navigate through the chapter content. Instead of starting with the meaning and the formal definition of the term strategic management, the author has started with the process of strategic management followed with its contents. The assumption made in this case, is that the readers are aware of the meaning of strategic management. It is also worth noting that the authors do not discuss entirely the information related to the subthemes provided. For instance, he gives a subheading as “intended and emergent strategy” but offers additional information that do not fall under that subtheme. It is important that there is a proper flow of the subheadings in a way that the author begins with the simplest themes in strategic management to more complex themes. Moreover, the discussion under each theme needs to be limited to the theme provided to avoid any confusion. The subheadings must be provided in a way that they support easy navigation and understanding of the text presented.

The Diagrams

The diagrams used by Finlay (2000) in his graphical presentation of the different types of stakeholders and strategy lack references and/or original source. In this case, it is difficult to tell whether the information presented graphically is the author’s own view or the views of other scholar, as such the readers are left to guess the source. It is also observed that there is no key or any simple explanation on the contents of the diagram. For instance, the types of stakeholders are indicated as primary and secondary without further emphasis on their meaning. Finlay readers are expected to have prior knowledge on what the secondary and the primary stakeholders mean. This assumption is inaccurate since majority of the readers are likely to be conversant with the classification of active and passive stakeholders. They are likely to be confused on this classification adopted by Finlay if he fails to provide further meaning within the diagram. The diagram also needs to be more colorful to make them visible and attractive to the readers. As Fairhurst & Uhl-Bien (2012) indicates, the graphical representation is basically a summary of the information presented in word. A more visual diagram with detailed information is likely to attract more readers enabling them to acquire more information and knowledge without necessarily going through the entire document.

Alternative Discourses

The author needs to consider the use of simple but formal English language. The use of jargons and more complex vocabularies may bar some readers from understanding the information being conveyed, as such the use of simple language will ensure that a wide range of readers understand the information as communicated by the author.

The chapter subheadings need also to be presented in a way that the reader is able to gain stepwise information on the concept of strategic meaning. The subheadings need to begin with simple information such as definition and meaning to more complex information on strategic management. As such the reader is able to understand the meaning of the term strategic management at the beginning and attain comprehensive information at the end of the chapter.

Making the book more colorful will also attract more readers. The author need to include more colors in the diagrams presented in the book. In addition, there is need to include captions that will contains a description of the processes as graphical presented in the diagrams. In addition, the caption will include the source of the diagram presented in form of a reference. Making the diagrams more colorful will not just attract the readers but will also enable them have an easy time in understanding the diagram contents. The alternative discourses identified above will therefore ensure that the work of Finlay is understood more by a wide range of readers.












Bloor, M., & Bloor, T. (2013). The practice of critical discourse analysis: An introduction. Routledge.

Coulthard, M. (2014). An introduction to discourse analysis. Routledge.

Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Routledge.

Fairhurst, G. T., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2012). Organizational discourse analysis (ODA): Examining leadership as a relational process. The Leadership Quarterly23(6), 1043-1062.

Gee, J. (2015). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses. Routledge.

HW #3 Water issues in Guatemala and Egypt

HW #3 Water issues in Guatemala and Egypt

1) If it has been a few days since my little preview lecture, perhaps check it out again (WORD).

2) Read the Egypt article (PDF) first since their dam is already built and they are in a position to make claims about its long-term effects.

3) Then read the Guatemala article ( ).

4) Your prompts:

• What are some of the implications of developing nations’ efforts to control, employ, manipulate, and commodify water?
• What are some ways E’s experience contrasts with that of G?
• What were some of the issues and/or pressures E faced 50 years ago vs. those G faces today? Did those SOBs in the developed world have a serious impact on the choices made by both of these developing nations?
• Were E’s efforts a model for other developing nations? Are G’s?
• Is there a fundamental difference in resource management if you, like E, are a dictatorship with one river vs., like G, a democracy with dozens? How do those differences get expressed?
• … or whatever, you tell me…

Since the early 20th century, water fluoridation remains one of the most controversial issues in public health policy.  Opponents of fluoridation argue that fluoride is poisonous and can lead to poor health. The other argument is that it is a form of mass control, which allows public health officials to control the health of the public through mass medication. However, scientific evidence suggests otherwise. No single study has provided sufficient evidence on the relationship between water fluoridation in the recommended amounts and negative health effects. Opponents generally rely on research that fails to control other variables such as age and sex, which determine health outcomes. Recent attempts to revoke water fluoridation rules shows that the controversy is yet to die, and opponents continue to influence public policy to the detriment of the public.

Water Fluoridation Conspiracy

Water fluoridation, a process of adjusting fluoride levels in drinking water is touted as one of the ‘greatest public health miracles of the 20th century,’ or even one of the greatest public health fraud of the century (Garfield, 1986). Fluoridation played a key role in reducing the prevalence of dental cavities in the 20th Century.  While dental cavities remain preventable, they are still a major threat to the health outcomes of children and are one of the most common and significant chronic problem affecting children. Even though fluoridation has played a key role in reducing dental cavities, more than 100 million Americans do not have access to fluoridated water (Noda, 2016). Individual views rather than scientific studies have largely determined the implementation of water fluoridation in various communities. At any one time, any attempt to fluoridate community water leads to the emergence of conspiracy theories on the negative impact of fluoridation on community health. This paper examines the key controversies and scientific information on fluoridation.

Literature Review

Rise of Organized Community Fluoridation

            The study of water fluoridation began in the early 1900s when Dr. J. M. Eager was stationed in Italy as a dentist. Eager observed that Italian emigrants had poor oral health, with the majority having black horizontal lines on their teeth (Carstairs, 2015). He observed that the emigrants would develop the dental disease after drinking water from nearby springs. Another Dentist Fredrick McKay began observing a similar phenomenon in the U.S and devoted his time studying the issue. While the two were not aware of the research findings of the other until a decade later, they reported similar findings. By the early 1930s, the two researchers had discovered that fluoride in water was the main cause of dental staining (Carin, Katz, & Rosenthal, 1969). There were several other attempts to study the effect of fluoride, with early studies focusing on the negative effects of fluoride on oral health.

Earlier government efforts to study the impact of fluoride began in 1930 when Dr. H. Trendley Dean, the first director of National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted an epidemiological study on the relationship between water fluoride and endemic mottling of teeth (Carstairs, 2015). The epidemiological study found that only fluoride levels of 1.0 parts per million could cause severe staining. Further, the study reported that fluoride reduces the prevalence of dental cavities. Gradually, other studies began to emerge, which provided evidence that there was a strong relationship between fluoridation and reduction of dental cavities. In 1938, Dean published his research showing that fluoridation of water with fluoride of lower than one part per million would lower the prevalence of dental cavities (Carstairs, 2015; Mullen, 2005). The research, as well as, other epidemiological studies led to the emergence of community water fluoridation through organized community efforts.

Critically assess the development of one National Curriculum subject in England or Wales

Write a formal essay on the following topic:

Critically assess the development of one National Curriculum subject in England or Wales.


-choose what subject (i.e. English, maths, science etc) and either England or Wales


Your essay should cover the following points:


  1. What factors led to the subject’s inclusion in the original National Curriculum (1988 Education Act)?
  2. What view does the National Curriculum in this subject take, implicitly and explicitly, of the subject as a resource for the general education of pupils in schools?
  3. In what respects has the framework and/or content of the National Curriculum in this subject proved controversial?
  4. In what respects has the introduction of the National Curriculum in this subject changed the way the subject is taught and learned in schools?



ED20820 – Making sense of the curriculum – Assignment 1 guidance


  1. Make sure that you have read the current National Curriculum for your subject.


This is essential reading and must be referred to in your essay.


You will also need to refer to previous versions of the National Curriculum.


  1. When you quote from the National Curriculum (any edition, either country), you must use quotation marks and correct referencing, including page numbers where there are page numbers.


  1. You must use the Harvard system for all sources. Check with the Reading List and ask if you’re not sure.


  1. Make sure that you keep track of the dates of your sources and write about them in the correct tense. For example,


Sealey (1996:38) says that the National Curriculum “expresses a belief that involving children in contexts which require standard English will lead to its adoption.”


This should be


Sealey (1996:38) said that the National Curriculum of 1995 “expresses a belief that involving children in contexts which require standard English will lead to its adoption.”


  1. Use contents lists and indexes as well as just looking for books on your subject. For example, books intended for primary or secondary teachers (or teachers generally) may have chapters about your chosen subject. These may cover its development through the national curriculums, teaching methods and controversial aspects.


  1. There is a series of books called “Learning to teach [a National Curriculum subject] in the secondary classroom”, published by Routledge.


These are in English and consist of chapters by different contributors. Most, if not all, have a section about the subject in its general context as well as its pre National Curriculum context.


  1. Other reliable sources may include subject associations, eg The Association for Science Education (ASE) or the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM). There are also professional associations, eg the Association for Physical Education (afPE) and The National Society for Education in Art and Design (NSEAD). If you are unsure, contact me to check.


  1. Welsh in the National Curriculum


  1. If you decide to look at Welsh in the National Curriculum, you will have to use more original documents, reports, etc.


  1. More information is also available in texts which deal with the development of the Welsh language and the history/development of education in Wales generally.


  1. If you quote from a text written in English, the quote should remain in English; if you quote from a text in Welsh (eg the National Curriculum), the quote should remain in Welsh.


  1. If you have any referencing queries, ask.


  1. Blogs, journalism and websites for parents or the general public are not appropriate sources for this module.


One exception might be if you find a blog written by one of the authors on the reading list – make sure that it is actually that author and not someone else of another name!




Business Issues and the Contexts of Human Resources

Understand the key contemporary business issues and main external factors affecting different organisations and the impact on HR.
1.1 Assess a range of different factors which impact on an organisation’s business and its HR function.
2 Understand how organisational and HR strategies and practices are shaped and developed.
2.1 Analyse the forces shaping the HR agenda.
2.2 Compare different tools for analysing the business environment.
2.3 Explain the key stages in strategy formulation and implementation and the role of HR.
2.4 Examine HR’s contribution to business ethics and accountability
3 Know how to identify and respond to changes in the business environment.
3.1 Evaluate business performance and the role of HR in business planning and the change management agenda.
3.2 Assess and utilise different sources of business and contextual data for planning purposes AVADO Learning Limited. Registered in England with number 06177616.
Registered office: Landmark House, Hammersmith Bridge Road, London, W6 9EJ. VAT Registration number: 918560018.
Authorized and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority – Interim Permission Number 611566 Assessment activity Assessment

You have been asked by the CEO to compile a report on ‘The developing role of HR within present day business’. Your report should include;
• An analysis of internal forces which can shape the HR agenda, you could include for example; structure/model of the HR function, HR strategies, strategic objectives and stakeholder expectations.
• An assessment and summary of a range of different external factors impacting on an organisation’s performance and explain how they affect the HR function.
• A table comparing two different environmental analytical tools e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, Porter’s 5 Force’s, etc.
• A summary of the key stages of strategy formulation and implementation. You should refer to the role of HR in each of the stages summarised. You should also highlight HR’s role in; i) Business Ethics and ii) Accountability. You should reference all key models and literature used.
2.3, 2.4
• A table or chart illustrating a range of ways business performance is measured in the organisation for different purposes. You should also highlight with examples, the role of HR in; i) Business Planning and ii) Change Management.
• An assessment of how different sources of business/internal and contextual/external data should be considered and used when planning e.g. internal information within the organisation including HR metrics, industry information e.g. trends in HR, competitive information, government information.
Evidence to be produced: A report equating to 4000 words in total. Remember to relate academic concepts, theories and professional practice to the way organisations operate, in a critical and informed way, and with reference to key texts, articles and other publications and by using organisational examples for illustration.
All reference sources should be acknowledged using Harvard-style referencing, and a bibliography provided where appropriate (these should be excluded from the word count).

multiple sclerosis


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease affects approximately 1 million people in the United States. It is estimated that nearly 2.3 million people have currently suffered the burden of MS globally.  The main characteristic associated with MS is the destruction of myelin. It also damages axons, which leads to permanent disability.

Multiple Sclerosis is more likely to affect people who live in certain environments and those who belong to specific ethnicities. Despite the recent advances in research on the types of risk factors and implications, the pathogenesis of the disease is not yet known. Based on previous research that explored both genetic as well as geographical epidemiology of the disorder, the current literature has studied how the disorder increases from a combination of genetic susceptibility as well as environmental exposures that acts from childhood to adulthood

For many people, the first brush with what is to be later diagnosed as multiple sclerosis is what physicians refer to as a clinically isolated syndrome. This occurrence of neurological signs often lasts for 24 hours. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly informs the body to attack the myelin sheath, which is the protective sheath over nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. The process of demyelination causes scars or lesions that make it more difficult for signals to travel between the human body and brain. In most cases, the disease affects one eye, but in rare cases, can affect both eyes. Like the other types of MS, there is also numbness and tingling, which usually affects the arms and legs. Research shows that not everyone having clinically isolated syndrome will get multiple sclerosis, but the odds are higher for those who have lesions in their brains due to the loss of myelin.
Of the numerous stages of multiple sclerosis, Primary multiple sclerosis, is the most common and can be terminal. Clinicians can assist in the management of MS through various combination measures such as nutrition, supplements, exercise, rehabilitation, medication, and and non-pharmacological alternatives. The disease of MS is broad which may cause each patient to be affected differently, all depending on the disease course and progression. Therefore, initiating treatment through non-invasive measures such as proper nutrition and supplements can be the first step of treatment plan. Research shows that the effects of MS is highly amongst those who receive aggressive treatment rather than those who do not. Further, it entails that patients suffer more of the side effects of medications rather than the disease itself which subsequently causes patients to be non-compliant.
Signs and symptoms of MS
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease that causes many symptoms. The more in-depth of the progression of the disease guarantees vigorous symptoms. The most common symptoms includes bowel and bladder problems (Lin et al., 2019). Another symptom is a lack of coordination or clumsiness, making it difficult for someone to get around (Yang & Liu, 2019). Symptoms progress to trouble walking, keeping balance, maintaining coordination, gait stability and dizziness. Depression and emotional changes can also occur with multiple sclerosis (Lin et al., 2019). As one is aware of the slow deterioration process, multiple sclerosis may cause nystagmus, which is an involuntary eye movement, and diplopia or double vision (Burke, 2019). Apart from weakness or fatigue, muscle spasms usually affect patient’s legs (Yang & Liu, 2020). Muscle spasms are an early symptom for nearly all patients who have multiple sclerosis. The same symptoms can also affect people with progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients may also feel intense painful spasms or mild stiffness (Burke, 2019). Erection problems in men and vaginal dryness in women may be felt. Patients may be less responsive to touch, have a lower sex drive, and may have trouble reaching orgasm (Makris, Piperopoulos & Karmaniolou, 2014).

Restoring voting rights to convicted felons

Using your reference list and project template from week 2s assignment, complete the project by adding a 250-word summary of each article under its reference. You need to summarize each article factually, using your own words and refrain from using quotes and opinion. In addition, please make sure your sources do not include encyclopedias, boo reviews or article citations

Have another person proof your project. Please use times new romans 12 points

We run all papers through safe assign, so ensure that the paper if plagiarism free

The articles must be on restoring voting rights to convicted felons

In their speech delivered at the southern historical convention and at the Decoration Day held in Madison Square, Juban and Frederick respectively ascertained that it is significant to remember the nature and occurrences of civil war. Jubal communicated that history is philosophically referred to as teaching by example. As such, the historical events during the Civil war must be upheld if its causes and consequences are to be understood and replicated in the present and future society . While the importance of remembering the civil war is shared by Frederick in his speech, he differs with Jubal on the reasons for doing so. Frederick emphasizes on the possibility of achieving equality, liberty, and justice. According to him as much as most of the emancipated millions are yet to receive full liberation, he is certain that justice will prevail in the long run. Thus, the historical events of the civil war ought not to be used to label the North as wrong and the South as right. Long lasting peace is unlikely to be attained when the two sections are differentiated based on those who fought for liberation and those who fought against it. While exploring the views of the two speakers on the causes and consequences of the civil war, the author of the current paper argues that lasting liberty and justice will only prevail in America when the events of the civil war are remembered to honor the persons who died for liberation and not to justify the wrongs and/or rights done by any of the parties involved in the war.
Clinging to the historical memories of the civil war justifies the wrongs of the North that are detrimental to the attainment of full liberation in America. Individuals such as Jubal argue that forgetting about the past is impossible even when the victims involved have the will to do so. The heroism and devotion exhibited by the fighters during the struggled for their liberation cannot as observed in the battlefield cannot be erased from the memories of the current generation. In addition, the possibility of having the world permit and preserve the events as they occurred in the battlefield is minimal, as such, it is better to keep them as memories. Jubal has also argued that forgetting the continuance and the sacrifices endured by individuals fighting for their sacred rights cannot fade from the memories of men. As such upholding the memories of the war is inevitable. Remembering the events of the civil war in this manner is largely unbeneficial to the Americans. The motivate is to highlight the wrong doings of the North as well as justify them as persons involved in the fight against liberation of slavery in America. Hatred is likely to build up that will deter the process of attaining justice and equality. Remembering the events of the civil war in this line is therefore more detrimental than beneficial to the Americans.
Memorizing the events of the civil war intensify the assertion that the South lost and would therefore remain in slavery. The main cause of the war was to eliminate slavery and attain self-governance. Secession was not achieved as desired after the North won the civil war that lasted for approximately four years. In his speech, Jubal has also noted that the interest of the South and all those who fought for liberation is not likely to be lost irrespective of losing the war. The spirit and the goal of those who died in the war still live amongst the current generation, as such, are likely to consider revising the interest of secession . The issue of slavery is more eminent amongst people who cling to the memories of the war in such a way that any wrong doing by the government is attributed to the continual perceived slavery as reported amongst the South. As much as there may be certain principles fought for by the slaves that have remained compromised, as Frederick said, they should not be used as way to justify the assertion that slavery has remained in America . Rather, Americans as a whole both from the North and the South should be optimistic and anticipate the attainment of equality and justice in the near future. Analyzing and memorizing the events of the war to justify the wrongs or rights done by any of the parties involved in the war.
Saving the legacy of civil war will only fuel the idea of self-governance as was anticipated by the South. Douglas has instigated massive efforts to forge memory of the war into action with the view of attaining dignity, freedom, citizenship and suffrage. His interpretation of the civil rights as imposed by the American Supreme Court indicates a failure by the national government to offer full liberation to the slaves . Indeed the scholar pointed out that the civil rights were major deterioration in the fight against slavery and anticipated the possibility of enhanced racism in America . On the contrary, as communicated by Frederick in his speech, the poor interpretation of the civil rights has negatively affected the spirit of reconciliation between the North and the South. According to him, if the amendments in the constitution are fairly understood, faithfully implemented and obeyed to the latter, the spirit of togetherness that will consequently lead to the provision of justice is likely to be observed . As such, opposing the civil rights as executed by the national government will only interfere with the spirit of togetherness that farther retards the attainment of justice and full liberation from slavery.
The need to create unity in America by the North and the desire to attain liberation by the South contributed to the struggle over civil war memory. Jubal in his speech holds the same view as Douglas who pointed out that liberation will only be attained if the current and future generation upholds the events of the war as observed in the battle field. While supporting the assertion that the preservation of the war legacy was vital, his main aim was to forge the historical myths that could assist in wining legal battles in their present and future lives . To him, the cultural myths based on historical ideas and stories will not only influence the amendments of the civil wars but will also lead to the development of sacred values that will promote freedom and equality for the black . This was however contrary to the desires of the North that aimed at attaining national unity. To them, the civil war was a battle of principles and ideas that divided one section and united the other. Moreover, in their view the war was between a government that upholds the rights of humans and a group of individuals that are uncivilized . As such, their main aim was to achieve peace and unity in America, as such would not embrace anything such as upholding the memories of the civil war that would interfere with the process of attaining lasting peace and unity in America.
The major reconstruction goal after the American civil war was to ensure Justice, equality and peace prevails in the region. However, with the difference views and perceptions on the civil war memory, the attainment of the reconstruction goals remains difficult. The South are still buried in the memories of the wars and still perceived as ex-slave holders. On the contrary, the North and the National government advocates for the observation of the Memorial Day as a remembrance of those who took part in the war and not clinging to the events and experiences of the battled field. As observed in the analysis above, the spirit of togetherness, equality and justice is likely to prevail when people act as patriots and only acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of the people who perish in the war, other than memorizing the events to highlight the wrongs of the North and the reluctance of the government in offering full liberation to the slaves.

Business Statistics and Intelligence

Case Problem 2 Quality Associates, Inc.
Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. In one particular application, a client gave Quality Associates a sample of 800 observations taken while that client’s process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for these data was 0.21; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be 0.21. Quality Associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. By analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. When the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be taken to eliminate the problem. The design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows:
Corrective action will be taken any time is rejected.
The samples listed in the following table were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the file Quality.

Managerial Report
1. Conduct a hypothesis test for each sample at the 0.01 level of significance and determine what action, if any, should be taken. Provide the test statistic and p value for each test.
2. Compute the standard deviation for each of the four samples. Does the conjecture of 0.21 for the population standard deviation appear reasonable?
3. Compute limits for the sample mean around such that, as long as a new sample mean is within those limits, the process will be considered to be operating satisfactorily. If exceeds the upper limit or if is below the lower limit, corrective action will be taken. These limits are referred to as upper and lower control limits for quality-control purposes.
4. Discuss the implications of changing the level of significance to a larger value. What mistake or error could increase if the level of significance is increased?

“The Dark Knight” and the American Historical Events during the 1st Decade of the 21st Century

In 2008 one of the most controversial films in the United States (US) history, entitled “The Dark Knight,” has made its debut in the cinemas. The film is regarded as the second film in the current Batman trilogy that received more than $ 1 billion in sales upon its release (Briley, 9). The film garnered one of the highest ratings in terms of gross income in the US film history leading to it being ranked as the 20th best performing film during that time. In the United States alone, more than 75 million people purchased tickets to watch the film while approximately 18 million people purchased copies of DVD justifying the higher amount of sales that were reported (Nolan , 12). Apart from the higher level of performance registered by the film, “the dark Knight” also received and won several Academy Awards including awards from various entertainment and film groups. Most notable award was the Oscar awards, where Heath Ledger won the award for the Best Supporting Actor, highlighting the films critical success as well as increasing its popularity.


Aside from its box office success, a careful analysis of the, historical context, plot, and themes presented in the movie reveals that the film presents one of the most controversial issues faced by the Bush administration during its campaign to fight terrorism. The film is arguably considered a reflection of the actions and activities executed by a state on the war against terrorists. Focusing in the film setting, plot, characterization and theme, the current paper presents a discussion on how the film is different from the real-world actions taken in fight against terrorists. A discussion on how the film contents influence the debates on war on terrorism in America is also presented.

The setting for The Dark Knight can be compared to the post-2009/2011 terrorism activity in America.  However, the location of the terror attack as observed in the scenarios two differ. The actions in the film are held in Gotham City while the terror occurred in New York presenting a clear difference in the settings of the two. As noted by Nolan (21) as much as the location of the terror attacks differs in the film and in the real attack of 9/11, the film has a noticeably post-9/11 aesthetic. This is justified by the nature of the attacks, as well as the nature of destructions of property reported, as indicated by the remains on buildings and affected humans. According to (Nolan, 8) life in Gotham city was scary, shaky, with threats looming everywhere. A similar observation was made in New York with many people avoiding the capital city citing insecurity and possible reoccurrence of the attacks. As much as the location of the terrorist attack differ in the film and real-life setting, it can be argued that the nature of attacks, its effects on the buildings, and humans was similar in all the two settings.

The theme of violence is common in the plot and characters of the film. One example of such violence is the Joker’s morbidity in killing one of the mobs, which he videoed to show to the authorities in Gotham City. Such violent acts are also commonly videoed by terrorists. It has been common throughout the world that when terrorists decide to kill some of their hostages that they do it through beheading. They would also usually video the beheadings and make them available for public consumption. The terrorists that the Bush administration fought were no different to Joker; they all succumbed to violent acts in order to communicate their message of terror.

The Dark Knight story line is framed around the fight against terrorism in Gotham city. The characters are either engaged in terrorism activities or in fight against terror attacks. Joker is notably involved in the film as a terrorist while the actions of Batman and Dent with significant aid from James Gordon (Gotham City’s Crime Unit leader) is to fight the activities of the terrorist. Gordon resumed the position of a Crime Unit leader upon the assassination of the then police commissioner. The main aim of the three characters was to capture Joker and ensure that he does not continue with terror missions in the society.  The tactic adopted by the three identified fighters against terrorism however differed. Dent focused on adhering to the law in the fight against terrorism. His strategy focused on prosecuting any armed criminal with an assumption that they will be involved in responding to the terror attacks in unlawful manner. A significant plot in the story shows the involvement of Dent is a confrontation with a mobster where we unloads a gun from them and forces them to testify their disengagement in criminal acts. Dent adopted a law-abiding approach in dealing with terror issues and in the management or terrorism attacks.

On the contrary, Batman takes a different approach and focuses on working outside the law in restoring justice. Batman uses parallel measures including interrogation methods that are contrary to the law. Batman, on the other hand, believes that such level of adherence to due process will not be able to solve certain types of criminality such as those perpetrated by the Joker. Batman believes that extra judicial acts are indispensible in order to stop the Joker in his terroristic activities. The tactic adopted by Batman and Dent are clear reflection of the strategies adopted in various economies of the world to address terrorism activities. However, focusing on the case of America in the early 21st century, most of the tactics were within the law thus mirrored the actions implanted by Dent. McGowan (11) has pointed out that the approach taken by Batman was parallel to what was used during the president Bush reign presenting a major difference observed in the control and management of terror in the context of the film and in the American real-life situation.

In the film, Batman and Dent, and Gordon, teamed-up to fight diverse mobs – the Joker, included – that plagued Gotham City, by implementing their different strategies. Along the process of fighting the mobs, the Joker manages to kill a woman named Rachel Dawes, to whom Dent fell in love with. The death of Dawes made Dent abandon his idealism about due process and adhering to the law and instead became a vigilante. Dent executed his brand of justice by killing anyone who he thought was responsible for Dawes death. In one of Dent’s killing spree, Batman tried to apprehend him resulting to Dent’s demise. In order to preserve the good image of Dent among the lay people in Gotham City, Bruce Wayne convinced Gordon to announce that Batman was the one responsible for all the killings that Dent did. According to Batman, it is necessary that Dent’s idealism is espoused by the public in order to maintain a peaceful and productive society (Nolan n.p.).

Looking at the construction of Batman’s central vengeance in the film, an argument is presented that the film gives a clear reflection of the fight against terrorism. Going by the characters in the film, the terrorist activities in this case is represented by the actions of Joker. As observed, Joker is identified as a character that is malevolent and causes threats to the government as well as the ordinary citizens. Just as in the case of politically motivated terrorists, Joker is obsessed by acquiring more wealth, thus steal from well planned crime and eliminate any form of evidence. His political motivations are akin to lawlessness as his main goal is to instill fear in the society and cause massive destructions. It is also observed that Batman and Dent the attorney all refer to Joker as a terrorist based on his use of violence to push for his non-ideological agenda in the society. In most of the plots, Joker only focused on in provoking the authority and instilling fear all of which are clear characteristics of terrorism activities. More notable plot observed involves Joker taking organizing a plan to kidnap the attorney and Rachel to make Batman accept their demands, an activity that is mostly common amongst terrorist. From the demands presented by Jokers, his character as well as the activities he engages in qualifies him as a terrorist’s and his actions as terrorism activities.

The actions and reactions between the Joker, Batman, and Dent are a reflection of how terrorism activities occur and actions taken in fight against terrorism activities. As observed, Joker’s activities reflected the actions of the terrorists, while the actions of Batman and the Attorney are employed to counter the effects of the terrorists. While the actions of Joker gives a clear replications of what is observed in any terrorist attack in America, the actions executed by the Attorney and Batman are slightly different from what was observed in real-life management or terror attacks (Fradley, 20). Starting with the similarity observed in the terrorism activities, it is evident that the tactics and tools employed by Joker in the film mirror those that are observed in real-life terror attacks. The acts of violence exhibit by Joker clearly mirrors those observed from other terrorists. While he does not employ mass murder as a strategy, he typically provides warning of his planned attacks that both instill a magnified fear within the society, presenting him with a suitable environment to execute the attack. Joker’s main focus to initiate the attack is high-end public locations that are also the main target of terrorists in real life-situations.

A notable plot in the film also presents Joker and his followers arrange for execution of a terror in different locations, a practice that is common amongst the terrorist of the 21st century. According to Brooker (29) terrorists such as Alshabab, Al Qaeda do not only target the high-end areas but also ensure that their attack affects a significant number of individuals. The approaches adopted to execute terror attacks as observed in the film therefore presents a clear reflection of what is evident in real life.

Terrorists are also known to prioritize the attacks at the expense of their safety. In most of the American attacks, most of the persons involved in the attack, have died with the victims. In most cases, suicide bombers are used by the terror organizers to execute a mission (Honeycut, 11). Similar observation is evident in the case of Joker who does not prioritize his well-being over initiating an attack. In one of the significant plots, he is seen conversing with mob masses saying that he is putting on a jacket containing grenades that can kill if used. To him the pursuit of the larger goal comes over his life. Joker also uses his henchmen as walking bombs, a similar approach that have been adopted by terrorists in Iraq and major war zones of the world. The use of explosives that are either planted in shopping malls, government institutions, and other public areas are other tools used by terrorist in the execution of their attack. Similar observations have been made in the film where Joker admits to using explosives and simple tools such as accessible sharp objectives to come up with explosives capable of destroying high storey buildings. Most of the techniques employed by Joker are similar to the approaches and tools used by various terror groups that caused attacks in different parts of the world in the early years of the 21st century.

Most parts of the Dark Knight film focuses on the strategies adopted by Batman and Dent to counter the terror activities of Joker. The main goal of Batman and Dent is to capture Joker and bring an end to his terror activities. The actions undertaken by the two to achieve their mission however, differs from what is observed in the current world, and more specifically what was adopted by the American in their management of terror attack during the early years of the 21st century. Domestic spying was a strategy adopted by Batman in his management of terror attack. The approach focused on the illegal use of surveillance technology to trace Joker regardless of the potential dangers involved. It is clear that Batman views the approach as immoral, nevertheless he insists on using it as a technique to get rid of the terrorists. The use of surveillance for domestic spying is however, not evident in real-world. America for instance sees the approach as un-ethical, and thus not applicable even when it may be helpful like in case of tracking down a terrorist. Even in the case of the most troubling Al Qaeda leaders, the USA government refrained from the use of such approaches, since it is seen as intrusive, dangerous and unethical to the society.

The adoption of enhanced interrogation is also evident in the film Dark Knight. Upon arrest of the Joker after a long chance from the police, Batman engages him in an enhanced interrogation that is contrary to the law. He does not give the suspect a chance to respond to the question and engages him in a fight as a way to gain more information from him (McGowan, 12). Despite the objections he receives from Dent, Batman is reluctant to employ lawful means of extracting information but rather uses beating continuously that cause more pain to the suspect. The approach may be used in certain instances in real-life, through it is not acceptable in any American jurisdiction. Suspects are innocent until proven guilty and thus are entitled to be engaged in a legal process if any information is needed from them. The attacks on terrorist during Bush’s administration relied overly on laws thus no cases of enhanced interrogations were reported.

It should be observed that the events, characters and the ideologies that they represent are related to the historical events in US history during the first decade of the 21st century; particularly, the events that took place after 9/11. In 2001, the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center where bombed, resulting to the deaths of thousands of lives. The particular perpetrators were unknown although the government claimed that the attacks on the towers were related to Al Qaeda – a terrorist organization lead by Osama Bin Laden. Based on Bush’s speeches, this terrorist organization has no clear philosophical reason as to why they are spreading terror in the US, except, perhaps to their jealousy to the Americans’ way of life (Briley n.p.).

In order to execute justice, the Bush administration obstructed the due process of law in identifying and processing suspected terrorists. One of such efforts that obstructed due process was the establishment of the Guantanamo camp, where suspected terrorists were subjected to diverse physical and psychological tortures in order to extract information from them. The Bush administration’s decision to violate the American laws regarding torture can be paralleled to that of Dent; after experiencing a terrible crime, Dent decided to let of his idealism and succumb to extra judicial means to achieve justice. Another important parallelism is George Bush willingness to lie about the activities in Guantanamo, even denying that there are tortures that happen there (Myers n.p.). Such lies are consistent to those of Batman and Gordon in order to preserve Dent’s image or idealism. George Bush and his administration must have lied about Guantanamo in order to make sure that the lay Americans would not succumb to extrajudicial acts in finding justice. The tortures and similar extra judicial acts were perceived as necessary evils in fighting crimes, but such necessary evils should be done by few people.

The outcome of the strategies adopted by Batman in the fight against terror proved to be effective following the arrest of Joker. Nevertheless, it is observed that a number of deaths also arose from the actions of Batman. The approaches adopted were only effective in addressing the issue at hand, but were less effective in addressing issues of terror. A number of deaths arose as well as significant loss of property was reported. Most of the approaches adopted were also contrary to the rights of humans therefore questioning their reliability in addressing the issue. At the end of the film, it is observed that Batman is not a person that just fights evil, but also bears some resemblance to it. This is due to the number of deaths that he caused along his actions of dealing away with Joker and other terrorists. Portray of torture and domestic spying also presents the fighter as evil. Critics of the actions of unlawful counter-terrorism attacks have therefore pointed out that as much as they are capable of resolving the terror issues, they are less effective in a society consisting of law abiding individuals and persons who desires ethics in any activity.

The inappropriate nature of controversial terrorism attack should however, not be used to justify failed attempts in addressing terror issues. In fact, Les (10) has pointed out that the unlawful nature of the actions observed in the film cannot be used to justify the unsuccessful nature of the counter-terror strategies adopted during Bush’s administration. The film gives a clear discussion on how the society at large should refrain from unlawful strategy in their fight of lawlessness. Thus occurrences in the film should therefore be used as a process to guide the actions of those involved in fight against terror so that they do not became criminals in their attempt to eliminate criminals in the society.

Although it is a fiction movie, the political or ethical issues presented in “The Dark Knight” parallel to those of the issues that the Bush administration faced during its campaign against terrorism. Such parallelisms make the film more than just a means to entertain its audience but to also raise important questions about law and order. The film raises many important ethical and political questions that every person should ask: Should the government indulge in extra judicial acts in order to achieve justice, and should the public be barred from knowing such truths? The film, indeed, deserves its box office achievements; it did not only excel in cinematography and special effects, it also excelled in raising important issues that current societies face.

Works Cited

Briley, Ron. “The Dark Knight: An Allegory of America in the Age of Bush?” History News Network. 2008. [Accessed 24 Aug 2017].

Brooker, Will. Hunting the dark knight: Twenty-first century Batman. IB Tauris, 2012.

Daniels, Les. Batman-The Complete History: The Life and Times of the Dark Knight. Chronicle Books, 2004.

Fradley, Martin. “What do you Believe In? Film scholarship and the Cultural politics of the dark Knight Franchise.” Film Quarterly 66.3 (2013): 15-27.

Honeycutt, Dirk. “Film Review:‘The Dark Knight’.” Web Site. The Hollywood Reporter 6 (2008).

McGowan, Todd. “The exceptional darkness of The dark Knight.” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media 51 (2009).

Myers, Steven Lee. “Bush decides to keep Guantanamo.” The New York Times. 2008.[Accessed 24 Aug 2017].

Nolan, Christopher. “The Dark Night.” Warner Brothers. 2008.

U.S. Federal Bureaucracy and Public Policy

Complete the US Federal Bureaucracy and Public Policy worksheet

You must cite your references and use in-text citations in the correct APA format

Submit your assignment through the assignment submission link

Step 1: Complete the federal bureaucracy matrix to demonstrate how it influences the U.S. political system. Include APA citations for all unoriginal ideas, facts, or definitions

Federal aviation is a US based national authority charged with the mandate of regulating the activities and resources of civil aviation. The major role of the authority is to assure public safety, through regulation of air safety, promoting the growth and development of air commerce, and regulating navigable air space to promote efficient and guarantee safety to the passengers (Chang et al., 2016). One most noted regulation developed and administered by the authority focused on certification of pilots and navigators. The main goal of the regulation was to ensure that ground instructors, pilots and any flight operator meet the certification requirement, and are eligible to safely conduct the piloting task. The regulation focused on monitoring the performance of the pilot overtime and offered obsolete certificate ratings depending on the level of performance registered. The regulation also controlled issues of alcoholism and detailed the punishment for offense involving drugs and alcohol. To ensure compliance, the authority constantly reviewed the pilots’ certificates and embarked on re-issuance for qualified candidates. The regulation was suitable in ensuring that only qualified personnel are engaged, that consequently assured maximum safety to the public users of the aircrafts (Regattieri et al., 2015).

Since the initiation of the Federal Aviation Authority, significant reduction in number of plane crashes has been reported in the US. The government has succeeded in ensuring that only eligible and qualified persons assume the piloting role to offer maximum security to the public (Chang et al., 2016).  Being one of the passengers, the enforcement of the regulation and constant monitoring to ensure compliance, have not only given us confidence in the operations of civil aviation, but have also made most passengers develop a sense of security when on board. The experience in this case, is desirable since chances of accidents are reduced to minimum. The fact that the pilots are constantly evaluated leaves no room for any errors. The regulation has therefore been effective in ensuring that the passengers remain safe as they move from one destination to the next.