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Monthly Archives: November 2019

Business-level and Corporate-level strategies for Apple


Analyze the business-level strategies for the corporation you chose to determine the business-level strategy you think is most important to the long-term success of the firm and whether or not you judge this to be a good choice. Justify your opinion.

Analyze the corporate-level strategies for the corporation you chose to determine the corporate-level strategy you think is most important to the long-term success of the firm and whether or not you judge this to be a good choice. Justify your opinion.

Analyze the competitive environment to determine the corporation’s most significant competitor. Compare their strategies at each level and evaluate which company you think is most likely to be successful in the long term. Justify your choice.

Determine whether your choice from Question 3 would differ in slow-cycle and fast-cycle markets.

Entrepreneurship is widely recognized as a significant factor in the survival and success of an organization in the current dynamic business environment. Defined as the identification and exploitation opportunities to develop new and existing businesses, entrepreneurship enhances the competitiveness of new and existing ventures in specific markets (Rae, 2007). While entrepreneurship is not limited to novelty, the process is mostly driven by the engagement of an individual or an organization in innovative activities. According to Johnsson (2017), an organization that engages more in entrepreneurship is likely to perform better and achieve long-term sustainability in its industry of operation. Even though entrepreneurship is associated with positive income on the entrepreneur and the organization, not all entrepreneurial activities are successful (Peris-Ortiz and Sahut, 2015). Significant barriers and challenges are encountered that deter the attainment of the perceived benefits. Taking the case of Hill Holt Wood, a social enterprise organization and Seagate Technology, a commercial-based firm, the current paper presents a comparative analysis of the enablers and inhibitors of entrepreneurial activity as observed in the two organizations. The entrepreneurial activities in the two organizations are largely influenced by the characteristics and behaviour of the entrepreneurs, nevertheless, the social and economic infrastructure for entrepreneurship also impacts on the formation and success of new ventures.
Enablers and Inhibitors of Entrepreneurial Activity
Creativity and innovative nature of the employees in an organization is a major enabler of entrepreneurship activities. According to Johnsson (2017) having a creative team will not only support the development of a new organization but will also led to the release of unique quality products. Both Hill Holt Wood and Seagate emerged as a result of the creativity of their owners and subsequently the managers. The creative nature of Karen and Nigel, the founders of the enterprise contributed to the many innovative activities undertaken by the company (Frith, McElwee and Somerville, 2009). These individuals were not only able to identify a unique opportunity in a remote area, but were also able to use their creativity to come up with unique features that changed the physical appearance and performance of the wood land, justifying the relevance of their creativity on the desirable outcome achieved. Similarly, the creativity of the innovation team at Seagate did not only instigate the production of unique ideas on storage devices, but also resulted in their involvement in constant improvement of the design features and the performance of the storage software and disc drive. The two organizations emerged and thrived as a result of the creativity and innovative nature of the founders and the relevant teams.
Knowledge and expertise is another factor that supports entrepreneurial activity in an organization. According to Johnsson (2016) the knowledge exhibited by the staff as well as other stakeholders determined the extent and quality of innovations that can be done by an organization. Hill Halt Wood involved the community in the creation and development of unique features at the woodland. The knowledge of the entire community thus played a significant role in coming up with the inimitable wooden features and recreational facilities that enriched the economic viability of the social enterprise (Frith, McElwee and Somerville, 2009). On the contrary, Seagate relied solely on the expertise of its staff to come up with unique ideas that can be developed into quality products. The vast knowledge of the company staff and their expertise in the field resulted in the many innovative products attained. Different from Hill Halt Wood, Seagate had an opportunity to conduct training and development to its staff further improving their experience to take part in more innovations. Also, the organization operates a laboratory research and development for more innovations to be realized. This explains why Seagate performs better in innovation than the social enterprise. Other than just the existing knowledge of the innovating team, constant training of the employees improves their experience and expertise to become more novel.
Entrepreneurs’ motivation is directly related to the successful outcome of any entrepreneurship activity. Different motivational categories including rewards, independence, family security and intrinsic rewards influence the outcome or the entrepreneurial activities (Johnsson, 2017). In the context of Hill Halt Wood, entrepreneurs’ motivation was rewards, family security and independence. The entrepreneurs in this case did not only desire the attainment of the economic benefits of the entrepreneurial activity, but also wanted to make the organization environmentally sustainable (Frith, McElwee and Somerville, 2009). Apart from receiving income from the woodland, Nigel and Karen were also motivated by the need to achieve independence and family security. The high level of motivation of the entrepreneurs thus contributed to the successful exploitation of the business opportunity that resulted in the creation of a higher performing social enterprise.
Motivation in the context of Seagate Technology Company was different. The company entrepreneurs are mostly employees involved in new product development. As such, this team are habitually motivated by rewards. The desire to receive higher income and incentives from their involvement in coming up with new business ideas and converting them into innovative products formed the major form of motivation to this team (Seagate, n.d). Contrary, to the case of Hill Halt Wood, where there was a high level of motivation, the innovative team at Seagate are less motivated. The organization faces stiff competition from other players in the market and has been unable to offer additional rewards or incentives to innovators and new product development employees. According to the equity theory employees will show efforts in business execution depending on their perceptions on the rewards offered (Ryan, 2016). An increasing rate of employee turnover has been witnessed in the organization due to lack of motivation that has adversely affected its overall innovativeness and performance. Even though Seagate is still considered a better innovate in computer storage devices, the loss of many employers due to lack of innovation has adversely interfered with the constant growth of the company. The lack of serious motivation amongst the staff is thus a significant barrier in the execution of innovative activities within the organization.
Effective collaboration amongst the entrepreneurs has vital effects on the implementation and successful outcome of entrepreneurial activities. According to Ucbasaran, Westhead and Wright (2009) the success of an entrepreneurship is more than just recognizing an opportunity or an idea. Rather, collaboration with other employees and various stakeholders can speed up the connection of the ideas to release an innovative product. Also, collaboration creates harmony amongst the stakeholders to result in the effective implementation of the entrepreneurial activity. Collaboration between the management and employees of Seagate Technology contributed to their success as an innovator in the release of storage devices (Seagate, n.d). Speed is the major factors that assist the company achieve a higher competitive advantage, through collaboration, the organization has not only managed to release innovative devices into the market but has also obtained a high competitive advantage in the market due to its fast release of the devices, before they are imitated by other manufacturers.
On the contrary, not much has been realized from the collaboration observed between the management and other stakeholders of Hill Halt Wood. While the company managed to involve the community in their entrepreneurial activity, they were not able to successfully bring the government and other major stakeholders on board (Frith, McElwee and Somerville, 2009). These authorities saw the activities of the entrepreneurs as a mockery to their failures, thus were reluctant to offer any support. Also, the stakeholders were not motivated to be part of the enterprise since there were no foreseen economic benefits. The failure to achieve a proper collaboration with various stakeholders was a major challenge in securing the future and success of Hill Holt Wood. While collaboration amongst stakeholders contributed to the increase in the innovative performance of Seagate Technology, it was a major barrier to the success of the Hill Holt Wood due to the presence of uncooperative stakeholders.
Opportunity recognition and information search are regarded as the vital steps in entrepreneurial activities. Identification and exploitation of the right opportunity mark the first step in the success of any entrepreneurship (Ucbasaran, Westhead and Wright, 2001). Hilt Holt Wood emerged as a result of a problem-based opportunity while Seagate was created as a result of significant developments in human creativity (Westall, 2007). According to Frith, McElwee and Somerville (2009) Hilt Holt Wood, at the time of purchase was a waterlogged and unreachable 34-acre piece of land. The entrepreneurial activities executed in the region were therefore designed to restore the region to its ancient or a better state. On the other hand, Seagate Company deals with the production and sale of computer storage devices including disc drives, software and tape drives. The company was formulates as a result of an existing gap in the market and the enhanced creativity of the inventor (Seagate, n.d). In essence, Hilt Holt Wood was not just created as an asset for wealth creation but also focused on solving environmental problems. On the contrary, Creation of wealth and maximum profitability is the sole purpose of the organization.
Experience and traits of an entrepreneur can either promote or retard appropriate opportunity identification. According to schema theory, highly experienced entrepreneurs have enhanced opportunity identification and development schemas (Ucbasaran, Westhead and Wright, 2009). Through appropriate direction of attention and effective interpretation of information, the entrepreneurs can support the generation of new ideas. Nevertheless, highly experienced schemas are not without some biases due to their familiarity with the undertakings or over-confidence that can negatively affect their ability to effectively identify an opportunity (Ucbasaran, Westhead and Wright, 2015). Hill Halt Wood was formulated by directors who had vast experience in forestry management having worked for the Forestry Commission. Besides having gained knowledge on woodland management, the placement also made the entrepreneurs more resilient and patient making it possible to consider venturing in the business (Frith, McElwee and Somerville, 2009). Similarly, the founders of Seagate had a vast experience in technology, specifically, Alan Shugart, had worked for different technology-based organizations including IBM and Memorex Corp that enhanced his experience in the field. The familiarity of the entrepreneurs with their respective business environment contributed to the proper identification and exploitation of opportunities that proved to be successful.
Adequate information search also has significant influence on opportunity identification. The extent through which individuals get access to adequate information depends on various dimensions of human capital. The cognitive behaviour of the entrepreneur, level of knowledge and skills are some of the factors that influences the information search process and consequently impact on the opportunity identification process (Esterhuizen, Schutte and Du, 2012). Search behaviour is also bounded by the decision-making behaviour of the entrepreneur or the innovating team. Limited knowledge and lack of experience are factors that inhibit entrepreneurship activities due to its negative effects on information search and opportunity acquisition.
A look at the process of information search in the two organizations indicates that the knowledge and experience of the entrepreneurs contributed to effective identification of opportunities. The success of the new organizations created justifies the effectiveness of the opportunity identification and implementation process (Rae, 2007). Besides the knowledge and experience of the entrepreneurs, the effective identification of opportunities can be attributed to the novice nature of the teams involved. According to Hockerts (2017) experience may not strictly improve the opportunity identification ability of an entrepreneur, chances of over-confidence, illusion of control or blind spots subject to experience from past businesses may hinder effective information search and consequently entrepreneurial activity. As such it’s most likely that the experience and knowledge of the entrepreneurs were coupled with their innovativeness thus the effective information identification observed.
Networking is also an important factor in the process of entrepreneurship. According to Pittaway et al (2004) networking supports knowledge enhancement amongst entrepreneurs, promotes effective opportunity identification and improves access to vital information. Also, entrepreneurs are capable of dealing with business obstacles through networking. Companies that are owned by team of partners have a wide business and social networks that are likely to support entrepreneurial activities. Hall Halt Wood was formulated by two directors thus had a limited business network at its inception. However, along the developmental stages of the organization, the local community was involved in the business that further enhanced the business and social networks of the company. The implications of such networks were an enhanced performance of the social enterprise through the many innovations undertaken by the company.
Similarly, Seagate technology was formulated by a group or partners that enhanced the size of its social and business network. The company had more diversified skills and expertise that enhanced the ability of entrepreneurs to identify the right opportunities and effectively execute the same (Seagate, n.d). The production of unique and high quality storage devices is attributed to the large networks within the business and in the social cycles of the entrepreneurs. As much as networking is considered an enabler of entrepreneurial activities, the effectiveness of the networks in assisting the entrepreneurs gain access to the right opportunities and resources remains unclear. Also, the desired nature of the networks that will promote entrepreneurship has not been clearly outlined. Additional studies focusing on the effectiveness of the networks is desired to evaluate their performance in supporting entrepreneurial activities.

After identification of the right opportunity, the next step in entrepreneurship is the acquisition of resources and their effective management to exploit the opportunity presented. A number of factors exists that can either support or retard the full exploitation of the opportunity presented. Resource acquisition is one of the factors that can either enable or hinder the execution of an entrepreneurship activity. According to Thompson and Downing (2007) assets and resources to an organization such as human, physical, social, organizational and physical resources are accumulated throughout the entrepreneurial career of an individual. According to the resource-based theory quality and adequate human resources is believed to result in an enhanced probability of venture success (Alvarez and Barney, 2017). Financial and social resources are also believed to have direct positive impacts on the successful outcome of any entrepreneurial activity (Phillips et al., 2015). The involvement of the entire community in the operations at Hill Halt Wood ensured provided the adequate human capital needed in the social enterprise. As much as Hill Halt Wood is a social enterprise, the founders focused on achieving an economically and socially sustainable organization. The financial resources available thus enhanced the entrepreneurial activities undertaken within the organization.
On the other hand Seagate Technology had adequate human resources that supported the execution of the innovative activities. Besides the founders of the organization, an innovation team existed that was charged with the responsibility of new product development (Seagate, n.d). The adequate human capital available at Seagate supported the attainment of a positive outcome from the entrepreneurial activities. However, the limited financial resources inhibited further execution of innovative tasks. Even though Seagate was profitable in its first years of operation, the company growth stagnated due to the limited financial resources at its disposal, justifying the importance of resources to any new venture. Nevertheless, resources alone cannot be sufficient to support the attainment of a successful outcome. Entrepreneurs are expected to improve their skills and knowledge to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial activities.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Entrepreneurial activities in Seagate Technology and Hill Holt Wood were largely influenced by the behaviour and characteristics of the entrepreneurs. The creativity and innovative nature of the founders of Hill Holt Wood and the Seagate’s innovative team resulted in the creation of the organization and their consequent involvement in the provision of unique products and services. Also, the high level of knowledge and experience exhibited by the entrepreneurs supported the entrepreneurial activities. While motivation was an entrepreneurship enabling factor in the case of Hill Holt wood, it was an inhibiting factor in the context of Seagate since the product development team were less motivated.
Collaboration amongst the stakeholders was an entrepreneurship enabling factor in the context of Seagate Technology. However, it was a major challenge to the success of Hill Halt Wood due to lack of proper collaboration between the entrepreneurs and other relevant stakeholders. Other factors such as appropriate opportunity identification, adequate information search and networking evident in both Seagate and Hill Halt Wood promoted the entrepreneurial activities observed in the organization. While resource acquisition and management was not a major challenge in the case of Hill Halt Wood, the inadequate finances in the context of Seagate was a major barrier to the successful implementation of the entrepreneurial activities.
Despite the challenges experienced by Hill Halt Wood and Seagate Technology in their entrepreneurship process, the organization still managed to report some level of success. However to improve their competitive advantage, it is recommended that
Hill Holt wood improves the creativity and innovative abilities of its workers. Instead of relying on the innate creativity and innovative abilities of the community, the organization should support the novelty of individuals through constant training and involving them in research and development. This will not only enhance their information search ability, but will also improve their capability in opportunity identification. Better outcome in innovation and performance of the social enterprise is likely to be reported.
Hilt Holt Wood should also communicate the benefits of its services and products to various stakeholders to convince them to take part in the entrepreneurial activity. Improving its collaboration with the stakeholders, especially the government will improve the performance of the enterprise
Seagate Technology should offer additional rewards to its product development team, to enhance their motivation and consequently improve their efforts towards innovation.

Alvarez, S.A. and Barney, J.B., 2017. Resource‐based theory and the entrepreneurial firm. Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset, pp.87-105.
Esterhuizen, D., Schutte, C.S. and Du Toit, A.S.A., 2012. Knowledge creation processes as critical enablers for innovation. International Journal of Information Management, 32(4), pp.354-364
Frith, K., McElwee, G. and Somerville, P., 2009. Building a’community co-operative’at Hill Holt Wood. The Journal of Co-operative Studies, 42(2), pp.38-47.
Hockerts, K., 2017. Determinants of social entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), pp.105-130
Johnsson, M., 2016. The importance of innovation enabler for innovation teams. In The 23rd EurOMA Conference, Trondheim
Johnsson, M., 2017). Innovation Enablers for Innovation Teams-A Review. Journal of Innovation Management, 5(3), 75-121.
Peris-Ortiz, M. and Sahut, J.M., 2015. New challenges in entrepreneurship and finance. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-08888-4 CrossRef Google Scholar.
Phillips, W., Lee, H., Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N. and James, P., 2015. Social innovation and social entrepreneurship: A systematic review. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), pp.428-461
Pittaway, L., Robertson, M., Munir, K., Denyer, D. and Neely, A., 2004. Networking and innovation: a systematic review of the evidence. International journal of management reviews, 5(3‐4), pp.137-168
Rae, D., 2007, Entrepreneurship: From Opportunity to Action London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Ryan, J.C., 2016. Old knowledge for new impacts: Equity theory and workforce nationalization. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), pp.1587-1592.
Seagate (n.d). Seagate Opens New Technology Innovation Lab, Retrieved from
Thompson, J. and Downing, R., 2007. The entrepreneur enabler: identifying and supporting those with potential. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(3), pp.528-544
Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P. and Wright, M., 2015. Habitual Entrepreneurs. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, pp.1-5
Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., and Wright, M., 2001, The focus of entrepreneurial research: contextual and process issues. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 25(4), 57-80
Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., and Wright, M., 2009, The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. Journal of business venturing, 24(2), 99-115.
Westall, A., 2007. How can innovation in social enterprise be understood, encouraged and enabled. London: Office of the Third Sector.

Texas Politics

The following is the topic of the essay:

Whereas both political parties have been receiving huge funds from interest groups and corporations, the Republican Party has received far more money from economic elites than the Democratic Party. How has this funding influenced the party positions over the main issues Texas faces today? Does competition for donations convert political parties subservient to corporate interests? Why? Why not?

1.0. Introduction
In the process of accomplishing their work goals, employees are exposed to different kinds of hazards. Whether in the form of toxic chemical compounds, loads being handled manually, electricity or dangerous machinery, these hazards if not well-managed can have serious implications on the health conditions and safety of the employees. Even though accidents are expected in any organizational set-up, when systems of prevention are in place, the accidents are reduced to the minimum if not completed eliminated. As Elnaga & Imran (2013) asserts attainment of workplace safety is not accidental as a majority of the workplace accidents occur due to lack of an effective prevention system. These accidents do not only interfere with the health and well-being of the employee involved but also have negative effects on productivity and consequently the performance of the organization (Yazdani et al., 2015). Incorporating a preventive system for any form of hazard in an organization is therefore vital to reduce the incidents of accidents. Training of employees on the workplace safety issues is one of the most effective preventive systems. According to Robson et al. (2012) training enables people to learn and apply the information gained in different situations. Informing the employees on the perceived risks and hazards evident in the organization and communication of the preventive measures to undertake will assure maximum security to the employees. The current report gives a discussion on the problem of workplace safety as observed in Arkema and recommends the need to design a training program that can be implemented by the company to address the safety issues.
2.0. Statement of the problem

Increasing cases of accidents and poor health conditions have been reported in Arkema Inc. recent development have seen more than three employees sue the company for becoming sickened after consuming dangerous fumes from the production process (Tabuchi, 2017). It is observed that many employees are taking sick-leave either due to a health-complication developed at work or as a result of an accident. The rate of absenteeism is worrying and equally affecting the performance of the organization. Most employees believe that they are working in the unsafe environment following the higher cases of accidents reported weekly. And as Huang et al. (2012) indicates employees with a perception that their workplace id dangerous are more likely to be involved in an accident than those who consider their work to be safe. More cases of accidents are therefore likely to be reported.
It is no doubt that the organizational environment consists of hazards that increase the possibility of an accident. Toxic chemical compounds, electricity, dangerous processing equipment exposed to the employees are hazardous if not properly handled (Tabuchi, 2017). Inadequate knowledge on preventive measures to undertake when handling the hazards as well as the recommended workplace safety measures has led to the many accidents reported. Many employees have been victims of consuming toxic gases, some staff has developed skin injuries by handling dangerous chemicals, yet others have reported serious injuries caused by poor handling of machines. The noise from the processing machines and plants also presents an unsuitable working environment (Tabuchi, 2017). The implications of the accidents are detrimental to the employees and the organization. Thus the need for a training program that will enlighten the employees on the preventive measures needed to avoid accidents.
3.0. The Impacts of the Problem to the Organization

Work-related injuries and illness are costly to the employees and the organization. Worker suffering and pain is the direct implications of workplace illness or injury (Reason, 2016). Many workers have incurred costs for their treatment following the development of poor health conditions. Apart from the negative impacts on the employees, increased cases of accidents have also been detrimental to the organization at large. The injured and ill workers have to take leave until they attain good health (McCaughey, DelliFraine, McGhan & Bruning, 2013). During this time organization always report significantly loses regarding reduced productivity, loss of work time, loss of worker morale and increased employee turnover. Also, the organization has to deal with the bad reputation it acquires following the cases of worker injuries and poor health conditions, and lawsuits. Reduced profitability and poor performance have been registered by the company due to its failure to address the issue of workplace safety. Training is recommended as a suitable approach that can reduce the incidents of accidents within the workplace, through proving knowledge on preventive measures and workplace safety guidelines. It is therefore important that the organization develops and implement a training program to assure maximum safety to the employees.
4.0. Possible Solution

In the process of managing workplace hazards and accidents, an organization adopts control measures ranging from engineering designs, use of protective equipment, administrative control measures, and proper work practices. Under engineering designs, the organization is expected to eliminate as many sources of accidents as possible to reduce the chance of personal era and employee burden (Stuart, 2014). The administrative role such as job rotations can also be adopted by the organization to minimize the level of exposure of every employee to hazardous compounds. Some preventive measures cannot be implemented directly by the organization. The employees have a burden of adhering to the recommended work practices and regulations to remain safe. Also, the employees are expected to use protective gears when exposed to dangerous hazards. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on these preventive mentions and on how to undertake them have contributed to the many accidents that are reported to the organization.
4.1. Designing a training program on workplace safety
The current section gives the elements of an effective training program and the steps to be undertaken in the training process
4.1.1. Purpose of training
Identifying the primary purpose of any training program is important. The training and evaluation methods are chosen based on the purpose of the training. In the current case, the purpose of the training will be to achieve a transfer of knowledge and skill development and attitudinal change amongst the employees. The training program should, therefore, be geared towards teaching the staff on the various hazards, their labels and warning signs, and the preventive measures to be undertaken. Similarly, the training program should focus on enhancing the employees’ belief that it is possible to prevent accidents by undertaking certain measures.
4.1.2. Developing Training goals
The training goals are stated as the expected employee behavior after the training process. The conditions under which the goals are to be accomplished as well as the timelines are also indicated. The main aim of the training process as well as the specific goals to be accomplished is provided. The training goals will guide the training process by ensuring that the training methods focus on attaining the set goals. Also, the training goals will form the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the training process.
4.1.3. Training Methods
The training methods range from lectures, group discussions, computer-aided instructions and interactive video methods. The selection of the method to adapt is dependent on its level of effectiveness in accomplishing the training goal. Yazdani et al. (2015) recommended the implementation of training methods that will support the active role of the trainees, through a problem-posing session. The training methods should also allow for student-student and tutor-student learning. The identified features are only observed in the group discussions and lecturing as methods of training.
4.1.4. Evaluation of the Training Process
An evaluation of the training process must be done to determine its outcome and effectiveness. The evaluation is mainly done to ascertain whether there are any changes in attitude, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors of the employees as observed before the training. Qualitative and quantitative approaches can be adopted in the evaluation process. Through the use of surveys, focus groups, and interviews, the management can establish the number of safety complaints and accidents reported in a given period. The information gathered can be used to judge the effectiveness of the training process.
5.0. Conclusion and recommendations

The increasing cases of accidents and exposure to hazard compounds have had negative implications on Arkema employees’ health and the overall performance of the company. Absenteeism and loss or morale rising from the ill-health and injuries acquired by the employees during work have led to reduced productivity and consequently lower performance of the organization. It is observed that the accidents are as a result of the failure by the employees to adhere to the recommended work practices and safety guidelines. It is therefore important that the management design a training program that will focus on knowledge transfer to communicate the preventive approaches that can be adopted by the employees to avoid the accidents and exposure to hazardous compounds. Also, it is recommended that the management carries and evaluation of the training process to ensure that training goals are met and that a safe work environment is guaranteed to the employees.

Issues and Constitutional Rights in Corrections

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapters 1 and 2 from your textbook, watch the video Overcrowded: The Messy Politics of CA’s Prison Crisis, and review pages 2513-2533 only from the article Whom Should We Punish, and How? Rational Incentives and Criminal Justice Reform. This assignment includes an outline described below. The outline’s purpose is for you to prepare a foundation for your approach to your Week 2 assignment.

Including a minimum of two scholarly and/or credible resources, please prepare an outline of issues in corrections that briefly addresses, in approximately one paragraph each, the following:

  • Explain the issue(s) in at least one U.S. Supreme Court Case published within the past 10 years that addresses the balance between constitutional rights of incarcerated persons and administrative functions in corrections. (Approximately one paragraph)
    • To assist you with this part, note that the issue(s) in a U.S. Supreme Court case typically refers to the main challenge or claim that the court ultimately addresses in its ruling. For example, in Brown v. Plata (2011) (discussed in your textbook), a major issue was whether overcrowded conditions for correctional populations violates the Eighth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. Although you may choose any relevant U.S. Supreme Court case published within the past 10 years, you may find it helpful to select a case from Table 3.1 of Chapter 3 in your textbook.
  • Determine how the constitutional rights of incarcerated persons have been addressed by the U.S. Supreme Court in a case published within the past 10 years (for your selected case above). (Approximately one paragraph)
    • To assist you with this part, consider how the decision addresses the balance between constitutional rights of incarcerated persons and administrative functions, drawing on factors considered by the U.S. Supreme Court in your selected case.
  • Examine at least one cultural sensitivity issue and at least one diversity issue in corrections. (Approximately one paragraph)
    • To assist you with this part, you may explore articles or state or federal websites that address cultural sensitivity and diversity in corrections. Use at least one scholarly or credible source.

*Note: You are encouraged to integrate any feedback from your instructor and upload the assignment to your ePortfolio.

The Issues and Constitutional Rights in Corrections paper

  • Must be one to two double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) and Outlining (Links to an external site.)
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

  • Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
  • Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.
    • For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.
  • Must use at least two scholarly or credible sources in addition to the course text.
    • One source should address a cultural sensitivity issue in corrections and the other should address a diversity issue in corrections.
    • The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
  • Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Academic barriers In Lives on the Boundary


In Lives on the Boundary, Mike Rose writes extensively about many different kinds of barriers that students face on their path to educational attainment. He uses both his personal experience as a student and his observations as a professor interacting with students in various academic settings, such as a fifth grade after-school program, a college tutoring center, a veteran’s program, and an ESL program. Using Rose as our primary source, the third essay will continue this line of thinking about barriers that we have followed all semester.


Below is a list of academic barriers that Rose wrote about in Lives on the Boundary. Pick a barrier to academic success below. If you would like to select a different barrier not on the list, you must clear it with me first:

    1. Marginality of tutor programs and academic support/preparatory programs
    2. Remedial courses
    3. Testing of literacy
    4. The gulf between faculty and students
    5. Loneliness of students
    6. Underprepared students

Once you have selected a barrier from the list above, you will conduct academic research to 1) better understand the barrier and 2) argue for a solution or solutions to the barrier that will help community college students better achieve academic success.


  1. The essay must include an introduction with a thesis, PIE body paragraphs with topic sentences that support and develop the thesis, and a conclusion.
  2. Body paragraphs must include clear signal phrases with appropriate quotes, paraphrases, and/or summaries and correct citations (both in-text and a Works Cited page).
  3. The essay must include a counterargument.
  4. The minimum page length for this essay is 6 full pages long (with one line onto the top of the seventh page). The maximum page limit for this essay is 7 pages. The Works Cited page does not count towards the page length.
  5. The essay must include the following sources:
    1. Two sources must be articles from ECC’s library database.
    2. Two sources must be credible websites, appropriate for academic use.
    3. One source must be a book, anthology, or textbook (this does not include LB).
  6. The following sources are required:
    1. Mike Rose’s Lives on the Boundary
    2. Josipa Roksa and Richard Arum’s “Channeling Students’ Energies Toward Learning”
    3. Rebecca Cox’s “Student Fear Factor”


Your audience for this essay is your instructor and ECC instructors and administrators who are in charge of creating solutions to help students achieve academic success. Your job is to persuade ECC instructors and administrators that your solution(s) is effective.




Essay 3 Rubric



High Pass Pass Low Pass No Pass

1.      The thesis is relevant, focused, and debatable.

2.      It is located at the end of the introduction.

3.       In addition, the thesis effectively controls the essay.





1.      Overall essay structure is clear, logical, and easy to read; body paragraphs are organized in logical order so a reader can understand overall argument.

2.      Body paragraphs are logically organized in the PIE format with one main idea each clearly connected to the thesis statement.

Development of Ideas/Analysis

1.      Body paragraphs have clear topic sentences that logically support the thesis statement.

2.      Explanation/analysis is insightful, in-depth, and follows the topic sentence and thesis statement.

3.      The development of ideas is sufficient to fully explore the topic within the page length requirement.

4.      The essay includes an objective, fair, and respectful counterargument in a logical place in the essay.




Use of sources

1.      The essay includes the correct number and types of required sources.

2.      Sources are incorporated seamlessly into the text with grammatically correct signal phrases and correct in-text citations.

3.      Quotations are exceptionally well chosen; they are relevant and support the main idea of a paragraph.

4.      Summary, paraphrase, and quoting skills are used effectively to attribute ideas to the author and to avoid plagiarism.

  MLA Format 

The final draft has correct MLA format and includes a correctly formatted Works Cited page.

  Mechanics, Usage, and Grammar

Consistently clear, complete sentences with virtually no sentence-level errors that distract the reader or distort the essay’s meaning.  A reader can easily understand the writer’s ideas.



The Immigrant Experience

This set of New York Times articles report on the experience of immigrants, both legal and undocumented, in the United States.  They portray the determination of people to “find a better life,” despite great hardships: discrimination, fear of being caught and deported, difficult working conditions and low wages, missing home and family “back home.” The children of immigrants – both those who came with parents, and those born here – have a particularly difficult experience, as they are often socialized in two cultures.


The assignment is to analyze the experience of immigrants from a sociological perspective using theories studied in the second part of this course, particularly theories from the micro or individual level. This includes the theories of Simmel, Mead, Du Bois, and Hill-Collins. While you may also use some of the theory from Marx, Weber or Durkheim, an individualist theoretical perspective must be part of your theoretical framework.


Here are some suggestions for orienting questions and theoretical frameworks for your analysis.


  1. Immigrants seem to fit Simmel’s conceptualization of “The Stranger.”  As well, Simmel’s theory of interaction, and its forms, provides a foundation for understanding why immigrants have difficulty becoming part of the “host” society. Analyze the immigrant experience according to Simmel’s conceptualization, and discuss the consequences both for the immigrant and the larger society he/she is now a member of.


  1. As well as being a “Stranger,” Mexican immigrants in the United States also seem to be separated from the larger host society by a “veil,” as conceptualized by W.E.B Du Bois. What constitutes this veil; why does it exist; what are the consequences for both the immigrants and the larger society they live and work in but which tries to keep them separate?


  1. Mead’s symbolic interaction theory of socialization and the development of self seem particularly useful in analyzing the plight of immigrant children. What is the impact of being socialized by two cultures (for example, the Mexican culture of their parents and the wider U.S. culture that they are growing up in), especially when the latter is often hostile to the former? How might a child of immigrants “self” develop when he or she encounters negative responses from the larger society?


  1. Feminist Theory contributes to understanding why and how the “host” society deals with and treats immigrants, especially those labeled “unwanted” and “illegal.” For example, feminist theory elaborates on Marx’s concept of “exploitation” to explain why and how dominant groups both take advantage of and mistreat subordinate groups. These perspectives might be particularly helpful in analyzing the contradictory stance on immigrants: relying on the necessary labor of immigrants, while paying them very low wages, affording no benefits, and in general treating them like criminals. Hill-Collins concept of the matrix of domination might also be useful in analyzing the condition of female immigrants.


  1. Any of the above theories and/or orienting questions can be combined for a sophisticated analysis.


These are suggestions. You may address them “as is,” modify and/or combine them, or come up with your own orienting question and theoretical framework.


Paper Organization



You should present your research question/problem and thesis statement at the beginning of your paper, in the introduction.  The introduction should also include a brief outline of the paper, including a statement about what theoretical framework you will be using and the analytic argument you will make.


Include a brief (no more than 1 page) discussion/description of the immigrant experience, and the social factors shaping it. This may come before or after, or even “mixed in” with the Introduction.


Theoretical Framework

There are various possible approaches; two main ones are:

  1. Use one theory for your analysis. Maybe you think Mead’s symbolic interaction theory explains most everything about the experience of immigrants.
  2. Generally, “real life” cannot be explained with one theory. Use various theories, maintaining theoretical logic, to construct your theoretical framework. For example, if you are looking analyzing the mistreatment of immigrants, you might start with a Conflict theory to set the social structural foundation, and then use Simmel’s concept of the Stranger to look at the more specific individual experience of immigrants.


Whichever way you put together your theoretical framework, you must present a thorough discussion of it. This includes stating why you think it is appropriate and what specific parts (concepts, processes, dynamics, etc.) of the theories are relevant. You must also define concepts used, and explain the theoretical logic (especially if you are combining theories). For example, Du Bois’ theory of double consciousness builds on Mead’s theory of the development of self through interaction, and helps explain why immigrants feel inferior in the U.S.



The analysis of the sociological issues of immigration, your specific research question, and the information you use from the articles will be based on applying the theoretical framework you have developed. A strong analysis will not only be based on the theoretical logic in general, but will be conceptually specific. For example: If you are using Simmel’s concept of the Stranger, specify who is the stranger is, and why (difference, not born here, etc.). The analysis will also be specific in terms of both the theory and the information from the articles.


  • Avoid vague statements of either theory or evidence.
  • Remember that quotes don’t speak for themselves, they must be interpreted and/or their relevance to your argument must be made explicit.
  • Do not editorialize in your analysis
  • Use and refer (and citation) to at least three NYT articles in your analysis. Remember to cite theory readings.



Your conclusion may consists of several things: a summary of your argument; a statement about how the particular theories or concepts are useful for analyzing the problems individuals and communities confront with immigration; your opinion (based on the analysis); or larger social issues that your analysis of immigration implicates. These are only suggestions.


Style Guidelines/Mechanics for Paper

  1. Any recognized academic style is fine, as long as consistency is maintained including citations, foot or endnotes, bibliography or reference page.
  2. Font size: 12
  3. Double spaced
  4. Length: 6-10 pages
  5. Bibliography/Reference page required but not included as part of this length.
  6. Citations. Any work or author mentioned must be cited including name, year of publication, page number (especially if quoting, see below #8).

For example (Brown, 1997, pp.23-25)

  1. Websites must be cited (however, use of websites is discouraged and I will check for plagiarism).
  2. Refer to style manuals if unclear about citations, or other style issues
  3. Quotations: you may use quotes from either the newspaper articles or readings. These should be rather short quotes, and must include the appropriate citation. I encourage quotes, as they can be very good support for analysis and argument; however, no more than three or four quotes should be used.
  4. Paper must have either Bibliography (includes full citations of all works used in paper), or Reference page (includes full citations of works/authors mentioned in paper).
  5. Pages must be numbered.
  6. Title page: with paper title, name, course name
  7.  Check for typos, misspellings, incomplete sentences and improper grammar. I will deduct points for these. All word processing programs contain a spelling and grammar check, so there is no excuse
  8.  Edit paper. Do not turn in first draft. Read, edit, and revise as needed.


Use of the UHD Writing Center is encouraged. Since it is the end of the semester, an appointment might be necessary. If you staple your WC visit slip to your paper, you will receive extra credit points.


Any form of plagiarism will result in course failure (F) and will go on your academic record. Please see below for information on plagiarism. Please refer to Academic Honesty Policy (PS 03.A.19) in the UHD Student Handbook for information on consequences of cheating and plagiarism


Response to Intervention

Response to Intervention Assignment (100 points)

Each student will select a topic relevant to School Social Work practice for an issue impacting students in grades PreK-12 (Bullying).  The student will examine the topic of bullying using critical thinking skills and consider all aspects of the issue.  After conducting a comprehensive literature review the student will defend, through their writing, an effective evidence-based intervention for the identified problem. After completing the rational for using the identified intervention for the identified area of need, the student will complete a fictitious graphic display of data showing how the intervention would be monitored through an RtI model.  The student will also attempt to identify from the data collected what tier the student would fall in prior to and after the intervention. An RtI model is a system of monitoring student academic success through the use of single subject assessment (collect student information in baseline (without intervention), identify an intervention to use, implement the intervention and continue data collection- graphing data while in the intervention, if success is not noted in the intervention then the intervention is changed/modified, and data collection is continued until success is noted).  The RtI model is now being utilized for behavioral needs of student’s not just academic needs.  The new School Social Work standards include RtI for social-behavioral needs of students.

Paper must be typed and double-spaced. APA formatting is required.  Not to exceed 8 pages (12 point font).  This does not include Bibliography or sample intervention hand-outs if included.


Part 1: The Position Paper will include the following: (50 points)

In-depth description of the topic bullying and a summary defining the issue (literature review)

Description of current and relevant research on the topic of bullying

Description of how the issue impacts education (specify effects on individuals or groups)

Identify what tier the student falls in before and after the intervention

Select an evidence-based intervention for the issue or topic (citations)

Describe how you would determine if intervention is working and how you would gather needed data on targeted issue (evaluation)


Part II: RtI Graph/ Evidence-Based Intervention (graphic display of data) (50 points)

Each student will provide a graph that shows how the identified evidence-based intervention would be monitored and evaluated to ensure successful outcomes for the student.  The graph can display fictitious data about the target client showing how the RtI process would be utilized in monitoring academic/behavioral success of that student.  Also remember that you want to see if your intervention is working by viewing the graphic display.  Your graph should include a baseline, an intervention, a second intervention if the first intervention was unsuccessful, all axis should be labeled appropriately, and there should be a title on your graph. An article that explains how to use excel to format a graph and appropriately label all parts of the graph can be found in attached documents.


School Bullying


Bullying is a problem that nearly every child faces at some point in their lifetime. The majority of these children live in constant fear of harassment and are not able to live their lives as themselves. Bullying is “unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involve a real or perceived power imbalance. This behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Students who are bullied and who bully other may have serious, lasting problems. There are four main types of bullying in the world today (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). The four types of bullying are physical, verbal, social and emotional, and cyber. Physical bullying involves hurting someone’s body or belongings. It includes kicking, pinching, hitting, tripping, pushing, making mean or rude hand gestures, or damaging property. Verbal is writing or saying mean things. It includes intimidation, name-calling, teasing, homophobic or racist remarks, insults, or verbal abuse. Social and emotional is also called “relational bullying”. It includes behavioral actions designed to harm a someone’s relationship, reputation or cause humiliation; for example, lying and spreading rumors, playing mean jokes to embarrass or humiliated a child, negative facial gestures, mimicking the child in a mean way, encouraging social exclusion of a child, etc. Petrosino, Guckenburg, DeVoe, and Hanson (2010) found, girls are more likely than boys to engage in relational bullying, and this behavior is often learned at an early age. This category of bullying is the most difficult to recognize because it can be done behind the child’s back, but it is one of the most harmful. Children who are frequent victims of relational bullying feel rejected, depressed and submissive, and often do not see a resolution to the situation.” Cyber-bullying is bullying that involves electronic technology; for example, cell phones, computers, and tablets. It includes taunting or humiliation through social media sites (Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, etc.) or the internet, cruel websites targeting specific youth, humiliating others while playing online games, verbal or emotional bullying through chat rooms and dating sites, instant message or texting, posting photos and video of other youth on rating websites, fake profiles, and etc. Smokowski and Kopasz, (2005) noted, students who are being cyber-bullied are often bullied in person as well. Additionally, students who are cyber-bullied have a harder time getting away from the behavior.

According to Petrosino et al. (2010), Cyber-bullying is the newest of the four bullying types, and it is constantly evolving and changing as new technology and social media sites are introduced. Cyber-bullying has expanded the boundary of bullying, allowing students to be bullied 24 hours a day, seven days a week, regardless of where they are – even in their own bedrooms. People can post messages and images anonymously and distribute them quickly to a very wide audience within a matter of minutes which makes it difficult and sometimes impossible to trace. After they have been posted or sent, it makes it very difficult to delete any inappropriate or harassing messages, texts, and pictures. Bullying can be a very damaging experience, but something that is often over looked at is how very traumatic this experience can be to some people. It is a growing problem in today’s schools. Many adults believe it is something that is not as serious and they see it as, “a normal part of growing up or even a rite of passage” (Cooper, Clements, & Holt 2012).

Bullying Research

There is research going on related to bullying. Studies have shown that 15% of students are either bullied or initiate bullying behaviors on a regular basis (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Due to the overwhelming number of victims, the occurrence rate, and the steadiness of bullying behaviors there has been a lot research into the complex behaviors of bullying. These observations imply that “bullying is an unpredictable behavior that appears to strike without pattern and becomes a difficult problem for about one in six students.” Bullying occurs in all schools and is not restricted by race, gender, class, or other natural distinctions, but appears worst during early adolescence and “there is compelling evidence that the impact of bullying has lifelong debilitating consequences.” (Cleary, Sullivan, & Sullivan, 2004 p. 2). School bullying has received a massive amount of media attention recently due to an increase in school shootings in the United States. Another area of bullying that is receiving much attention is the impact of bullying on the victims. Research has found that a significant number of victims reported experiencing social and academic trauma resulting from bullying. In fact, some victims were unable to complete high school because of the extreme bullying environment the student had to endure. Additionally, the bystander’s role in bullying is beginning to be researched. Studies have shown that bystanders play a significant role on whether the bullying situation occurs and persists or stops and is inhibited (Olweus, Limber, 2010). These bystanders include other students, school staff members, and teachers. The studies suggest the need to educate all school participants on the dynamics of the bullying process in order to develop and implement an intervention model that would be successful in any school setting (Olweus, Limber, 2010). Another influence on the bystander is that they can become a bully themselves. Research has shown that students may act more aggressively after observing an aggressive behavior by another student.   Finally, researchers are looking into bullying prevention programs and interventions in order to establish some evidence-based interventions that can be duplicated in any school setting. The studies are focusing on the characteristics of an effective bullying prevention program or intervention since all schools may not may the same resources to apply to a specific intervention. By analyzing the characteristics researchers and show what aspect of a program or intervention is effective.


Effects of Bullying

Bullying can have severe physical and emotional effects on its victim. There are several ways to bully a person for example, physically, verbally or psychologically all of which are intended to cause bodily harm and or emotional damage. Some consequences of bullying can be seen and felt immediately. When a bully punches another child in the arm, a bruise might appear, or during name calling the victim might cry. While the physical effects may be temporary, some things are not visible and may cause the most damage. Perhaps the lingering effect of bullying is found on the emotional front. The emotional trauma caused by bullying can last a lifetime. One of the effects of bullying is that it can have a negative effect on a victim’s personality. Children who were normally confident, outgoing, and happy can suddenly become withdrawn, awkward, and depressed (Schuster & Bogart, 2013). Additionally, being continually bullied can cause a child to stop trusting people altogether often causing relationship problems later in life (Caravita, Gini, & Pozzoli, 2012). Once a child has been a victim of bullying, they will avoid situations where he or she might be ridiculed. Often a child who is a bullying victim will develop anxiety behavior that was not previously present. Depression in these children can become so severe it causes them to lose all sense of self-worth. Victims seeing no escape from their torment attempt and at time are successful in committing suicide. In other instances, rage fills the child and they begin to seek revenge. In some cases, the victim may resort to bringing weapons to school for either self-defense or retribution. (Petrosino et al. 2010) Furthermore, because of bullying, victims often develop eating disorders, begin to self-injure, or require extensive counseling (Schuster & Bogart, 2013). Finally, bullying can become cyclical leading to more victims. (Petrosino et al. 2010). Victims will sometimes attempt to gain their power, control, and self-esteem back, by becoming bullies themselves. The torment inflicted on these victims can lead to significant social problems with avoidance associations being the highest reported in adults who experienced bullying as a child. The effects of bullying on bullies can be just as disturbing. The aggressor in bullying, suffers from the same types of symptoms as the victims, including low self-esteem, depression, withdrawal, and the ability to trust (Schuster & Bogart, 2013). Most people who bully are or have been victims of bullying. These people develop aggressive type behaviors that carry over into adulthood (Petrosino et al. 2010). Bullies are people as well and most need some type of mental health therapy. As children, these kids usually have low self-esteem issues which they channel into their bullying. As adults, these people become the bar room brawlers, manipulative bosses, and child abusers always looking for someone to prey on (Schuster & Bogart, 2013). Although, experiences from one’s past is not an excuse for future bad behavior; in reality, such experiences are often the cause of current behavior good or bad. Bullying has many effects on the social welfare of society. It is all but impossible to treat all these effects so, it becomes imperative that bullying is stopped.

Evidence Based Intervention

The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) prevents or reduces bullying in elementary, middle, and junior high schools (with students ages five to fifteen (Olweus & Limber 2010). OBPP is not a curriculum, but an anti-bullying program that deals with bullying on a schoolwide macro level incorporating the classroom, individual, and community. Here is what happens at each level: Schoolwide: teachers and staff will be trained to use the program and deal with bullying problems.  A schoolwide committee will oversee the program. Students; will complete a questionnaire to give us information about the amount and type of bullying at our school. All students will follow these four anti-bullying rules: 1. We will not bully others. 2. We will try to help students who are bullied. 3. We will try to include students who are left out. 4. If we know that somebody is being bullied, we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home. Staff will make sure that all areas of our school where bullying is likely to occur are being watched. There may be schoolwide parent meetings and parent and student events. In the Classroom: The four anti-bullying rules will be taught in all classrooms. Class meetings will be held where students can talk about bullying. Students will learn why they should not participate in bullying. They will also learn to ask an adult for help if they see or experience bullying. Teachers will use positive and negative consequences for following and not following the four anti bullying rules. Teachers will make the classroom a positive place for students. Teachers and other staff will be trained to deal with bullying situations and the students involved. Students who bully others will be given consequences as soon as possible. Students who are bullied will get support from school staff. Teachers and other staff will meet with the parents of students who bully and students who are bullied. In the Community: Our school will be looking for ways to develop partnerships with community members and carry the anti-bullying message community-wide (Cecil & Molnar-Main 2015).

Evaluation of the Intervention

I will be able to evaluate the OBPP using a multi-baseline design and implementing the intervention at different time or each grade. The OBPP comes with a questionnaire that students fill out anonymously during the baseline observation period. The questionnaire will provide the school administrators with information such as how much bullying is occurring and what types of bullying is occurring. The questionnaire will be given at the beginning of each semester and at the end of the semesters. That way we can see if the bullying is actually decreasing or if the bullying is not being reported to staff. By tracking the number of bullying incidents, the school will be able to make adjustments to the intervention such as reeducating the teachers, staff, and students on how the program is supposed to function.



Caravita, S., Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2012). Main and Moderated Effects of Moral Cognition and   Status on Bullying and Defending. Aggressive Behavior, 38(6), 456-468.

Cecil, Heather, & Molnar-Main, Stacie. (2015). Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Components Implemented by Elementary Classroom and Specialist Teachers. Journal of School Violence, 14(4), 335-362.

Cleary, M., Sullivan, G., & Sullivan, K. (2004). Bullying in secondary school. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press Inc.

Cooper, Gregory D., Clements, Paul Thomas, & Holt, Karyn E. (2012). Examining Childhood Bullying and Adolescent Suicide: Implications for School Nurses. Journal of School Nursing, 28(4), 275-283.

Olweus, D., & Limber, S. (2010). Bullying in School: Evaluation and Dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 124-134.

Petrosino, A., Guckenburg, S., DeVoe, J., & Hanson, T. (2010). What characteristics of bullying, bullying victims, and schools are associated with increased reporting of bullying to school officials? Issues& Answers Report, REL 2010-No. 092. Retrieved from ncee/edlabs/regions/northeast/pdf/ REL_2010092.pdf

Salmivalli, C., Karhunen, J., & Lagerspetz, K. (1996). How do the victims respond to bullying? Aggressive Behavior, 22(2), 99-109.

Schuster, Mark A., & Bogart, Laura M. (2013). Did the ugly duckling have PTSD? Bullying, its effects, and the role of pediatricians. Pediatrics, 131(1), E288.

Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children and Schools, 27(2), 101-109.

Social world essay

For SOCI 1001

Part 1: (Social World Description) 2 pages
The first part (Social World Description) requires you to provide an in-depth, detailed description of a cultural group/social group/ social world that you are part of/familiar with. The key to writing a compelling description is to imagine that you have to describe your social world to someone who is completely unfamiliar with it. When you read the sample assignment about the social world of
smokers ask yourself this question – ‘did I get a good idea of what the social world of student smokers is like?

Part 2 (Analysis/Interpretation) 3 pages
The second part requires you to utilize the concepts we have covered in class e.g. gender, race, class, etc and to analyze your social world through those concepts. You should pick concepts that you find most interesting and relevant to your own interests. When you read the sample assignment you will notice that the concepts being used are defined when introduced and also these concepts are used in an analytically meaningful way i.e. the writer is carefully choosing several concepts that are very appropriate for the analysis of his particular social world. When you have finished reading the sample assignment you will notice that instead of simply having a good description of the social world of smokers you also now have a very good analysis of certain aspects of that world from a sociological perspective.

General Advice/Guidelines

Try as much as possible to narrow your angle/focus on a specific context and place/ group of people. It will make your description and your analysis a lot more manageable and defined.
This assignment is not a research paper but you should have an introductory paragraph that identifies what social world you will be focusing on and what specific concepts you will be using.

There is no need for you to use outside sources (apart from the textbook and lecture concepts) or research for this type of assignment. The learning goal for this assignment is for you to be
able to draw upon your knowledge and experience of a social world that you are a part of and analyze it from more outside and sociological perspective.

When directly citing you should cite using author’s surname, date of publication of the book and page number e.g. (Little et al, 2014, p. 25). (You can get the page numbers if you download the textbook into Pdf format). If you are citing my lecture cite like this: (T. Davidson, personal communications, date of lecture).