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World War II Paper

World War II Paper
FOCUS QUESTION 1. What steps led to American participation in World War II?

On June 6, 1944, the allied forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, free France, and Norway launched the single largest amphibious invasion in military history. It was an awe-inspiring undertaking and one of the most remembered events of the twentieth century. The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, as Supreme Allied Commander, coordinated an incredible amount of resources, supplies, and soldiers from different nations in order to launch the attack that would force Germany to defend its western flank while at the same time it was fighting the Soviets to the east. And Eisenhower did this without showing his cards and tactics to the Nazis. That morning, President Roosevelt led the country in prayer. The president prayed for the soldiers and steadfast support from the American people. He ended with the following words.

\”With Thy blessing, we shall prevail over the unholy forces of our enemy. Help us to conquer the apostles of greed and racial arrogances. Lead us to the saving of our country, and with our sister nations into a world unity that will spell a sure peace–a peace invulnerable to the schemings of unworthy men. And a peace that will let all of men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards of their honest toil.

Thy will be done, Almighty God.

Amen.\”

Franklin Roosevelt, June 6, 1944

Loaded onto thousands of boats, and behind the machinery and firepower of the modern war, laid individual soldiers, who knew with almost perfect certainty that they and many of their friends would die on June 6, 1944, on a beach in northern France. Books and movies have tried to convey the scope and intensity of Operation Overlord with varying degrees of success. Indeed, this Primary Source Exercise attempts to allow more vivid and prompt reflection of that day, but the scope of World War II, much less the D-Day invasion, is almost too immense to comprehend.

DOCUMENTS

Document 1 is the speech drafted by General Eisenhower, in case of D-Day\’s failure. Eisenhower took the responsibility for his decisions very seriously, as exhibited by the note he carried with him at all times during the planning.

Document 2 is statistical information on the D-Day invasion. The numbers involved tell the story of how World War II was a war of the industrial era in all respects.

Document 3 is a series of photographs of scenes from the Normandy invasion.

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Read Chapter 22, with special attention to Fighting World War II pp. 678-686. Read Document 1, analyze the statistical information in Document 2, and look at the photographs in Document 3.

2. Answer the questions that appear after the documents.

3. Write a three (3) page paper in MLA style that answers the questions from the textbook. Also, be sure to include your own thoughts on the subject matter. The anniversary for D-Day was a couple of days ago, so please keep that in mind. 

Be sure to include a \”Works Cited\” page that contains a list of your sources. This page does not count toward the three page minimum. This is just like your comp classes in high school and the university. Excessive grammatical mistakes will be graded down. Points will also be deducted if your paper does not reach the minimum length requirements. 

Your are also required to submit your paper electronically to Vericite. I will think that organization in the description. That group checks our submitted papers for plagiarism. 

This assignment will be due at the end of the module at 11:59 PM on July 28th. Any unfinished work will not be graded, and the submission Vericite will close.

CH 22 PRIMARY SOURCE EXERCISES – DOCUMENTS
FOCUS QUESTION 1. What steps led to American participation in World War II?

On June 6, 1944, the allied forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, free France, and Norway launched the single largest amphibious invasion in military history. It was an awe-inspiring undertaking and one of the most remembered events of the twentieth century. The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, as Supreme Allied Commander, coordinated an incredible amount of resources, supplies, and soldiers from different nations in order to launch the attack that would force Germany to defend its western flank while at the same time it was fighting the Soviets to the east. And Eisenhower did this without showing his cards and tactics to the Nazis. That morning, President Roosevelt led the country in prayer. The president prayed for the soldiers and steadfast support from the American people. He ended with the following words.

\”With Thy blessing, we shall prevail over the unholy forces of our enemy. Help us to conquer the apostles of greed and racial arrogances. Lead us to the saving of our country, and with our sister nations into a world unity that will spell a sure peace–a peace invulnerable to the schemings of unworthy men. And a peace that will let all of men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards of their honest toil.

Thy will be done, Almighty God.

Amen.\”

Franklin Roosevelt, June 6, 1944

Loaded onto thousands of boats, and behind the machinery and firepower of the modern war, laid individual soldiers, who knew with almost perfect certainty that they and many of their friends would die on June 6, 1944, on a beach in northern France. Books and movies have tried to convey the scope and intensity of Operation Overlord with varying degrees of success. Indeed, this Primary Source Exercise attempts to allow more vivid and prompt reflection of that day, but the scope of World War II, much less the D-Day invasion, is almost too immense to comprehend.

DOCUMENTS

Document 1 is the speech drafted by General Eisenhower, in case of D-Day\’s failure. Eisenhower took the responsibility for his decisions very seriously, as exhibited by the note he carried with him at all times during the planning.

Document 2 is statistical information on the D-Day invasion. The numbers involved tell the story of how World War II was a war of the industrial era in all respects.

Document 3 is a series of photographs of scenes from the Normandy invasion.

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Read Chapter 22, with special attention to Fighting World War II pp. 678-686. Read Document 1, analyze the statistical information in Document 2, and look at the photographs in Document 3.

2. Answer the following questions:

Why did General Eisenhower keep the note, Document 1, with him at all times during the planning and execution of Operation Overlord?
How does Document 3, the photograph of troops landing at Omaha Beach, show the context of the D-Day invasion?
Do you believe that Operation Overlord, the D-Day invasion of northern Europe by the Allied forces, was worth the sacrifice? Why or why not?
Document 1

Dwight D. Eisenhower, Draft of D-Day Statement Should the Invasion Fail, July 5, 1944

Our landings in the Cherbourg-Harve area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based upon the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone.

26.1_failure-message
Click to view larger image.
Source: Eisenhower Library and Museum

Document 2

Statistics related to D-Day invasion at Normandy, June 6, 1944

Allied Forces: 156,000 Allied troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, free France, and Norway.

Areas of Invasion: the Allied code names for the beaches along the 50-mile stretch of Normandy coast targeted for landing were Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. Omaha was the costliest beach in terms of Allied casualties.

The Armada: 5,000 ships and landing craft, 50,000 vehicles, 11,000 planes

Casualties (numbers represent total killed, wounded, missing, or captured):

United States – 6,603 (1,465 killed)

United Kingdom – 2,700

Canada – 1,074 (359 killed)

Germany – estimated between 4,000 and 9,000

Source: The National World War II Museum, The D-Day Invasion At Normandy- June 6, 1944, Fact Sheet, http://www.nationalww2museum.org/media/normandy-dday-invasion-fact-sheet.pdf)

Document 3

U.S. Coast Guard Collection, Army Troops Wade Ashore on \”Omaha\” Beach during the \”D-day\” Landings (photographs), June 6, 1944

26.3_omaha_beach_landing
Click to view larger image.
Source: Photograph from the U.S. Coast Guard Collection in the U.S. National Archives

Please use textbook below

Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Brief Fifth Edition, vol. 2
Eric Foner
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Asian American Religions and US law

This course examines the relationship between American law and Asian American religions from historical developments to contemporary debates. We will explore the exclusion and inclusion of Asian American religious traditions and persons through state and federal cases. Using several methodological and disciplinary approaches, including history, sociology, anthropology, law, and religious studies, students will learn how state governance delimits Asian American religious liberty and how Asian Americans and religious groups advocate for equal rights. Topics include Orientalism, racialization, various religious traditions, constitutional law, establishment and free exercise cases, religion in schools and prisons, zoning and noise ordinances, public proselytizing, taxes and financing new religions, brainwashing, and government surveillance. Classes will mix lectures on background material and key concepts with student-led and open-ended discussion. 

We will explore several theories of religion, race, and law before then applying these tools to analyze case studies of Asian American religions and individuals in legal disputes. After first investigating historical cases, most of this class is dedicated to post-1965 cases and issues. Guiding questions include: What counts as religious in America? Who decides this and on what bases? How have Asian Americans and their religious practices been categorized in American law, and how have Asian American religious groups/persons articulated themselves and their practices? How has the relationship between American law and Asian American religions changed over time? How do categories of religion, race, and nationhood intersect? 

There is no textbook assigned for this course. This is an emerging field and no single book yet addresses these themes. Therefore, assigned texts include a variety of journal articles, book chapters, and legal cases. To save you money—because a course reader would be very expensive and many of these works are available online—I have posted all readings on Gauchospace. You can print them or bring them with you to class on your laptop. I encourage you to download a version of Adobe Acrobat that lets you highlight text, make notes in margins, and annotate PDF files. Additionally, since this is an upper-division course rather than a lower-level course, there is more reading assigned. Also, many of the assigned texts contain heavy footnotes/endnotes; they are scholarly devices for citing sources, adding information, and arguing with other scholars. You may find the footnotes/endnotes interesting and helpful if you choose to read them, but they are not required; the lengths of these texts and the time it will take to read them are much shorter than at first appears, especially if you skip the footnotes. 

Rhetorical Analysis of a Public Document

Goal

Write a 750-1,000-word essay that analyzes the rhetorical situation of a public document. This public document is the Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) website on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) found at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html.Your analysis should include at least TWO scholarly sources outside of class texts.

Directions

Complete a close reading of the assigned public document. Then, write a cohesive essay that:

  1. Introduces and summarizes the CDC website on ADHD.
  2. Analyzes the rhetorical tools used on the site (here, you will want to incorporate ideas from your preanalysis below). For instance, your essay could analyze the CDC’s use of ethos, pathos, and logos.
  3. Evaluates the site’s effectiveness (again, ideas from your preanalysis below will be helpful).

This essay is NOT simply an expository or descriptive essay or an analysis of ADHD. It is an analysis of the site and how effectively the site uses rhetorical tools to get its point across.

First Draft Grading

  • You will receive completion points for the first draft based upon the successful submission of your draft. 
  • Because your first draft is a completion grade, do not assume that this grade reflects or predicts the final grade. If you do not consider your instructor’s comments, you may be deducted points on your final draft.

Final Draft Grading

The essay will be graded using a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations.

Sources

  • Include in-text citations and a References page in GCU Style for at least TWO scholarly sources outside of class texts.
  • These sources should be used to support any claims you make and should be present in the text of the essay.
  • Use the GCU Library to help you find sources.
  • Include this research in the paper in a scholarly manner.

Format

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

LopesWrite

  • You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
  • Please be sure to review your LopesWrite score before submitting the draft to your instructor.

Preparing to Write the Essay

Read the site closely:

  1. Read the webpage on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) found at  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html
    1. Do a first reading that uses underlining, annotation, and summary to make sure you understand what the writer is saying. Go back to any sections that need clarification.
    1. On a second reading, pay attention to what the writer(s) of the CDC site is doing by describing the writer’s strategy.

Conduct a pre-analysis:

  1. Use your close reading to analyze the rhetorical situation of the site.
  2. Here are some questions to guide your analysis.
  3. You do NOT need to answer all of them—pick three that make the most sense to you. Your close reading will help you generate ideas for your essay.
  4. What is the context of the issue(s)?
  5. What do you know about the topic?
  6. What issues does the topic raise?
  7. Is there a larger debate, discussion, or controversy already going on?
  8. What seems to be at stake?
  9. Who is the writer?
    1. What do you know about the writer’s background, credibility, knowledge of the topic, beliefs, and social allegiances?
  10. What is the publication?
    1. What do you know about its intended readers, reputability, political slant, and the topics it covers?
  11. How does the writer define the rhetorical situation and identify the call to write?
  12. What is the writer’s orientation toward the issues involved?
  13. What is at stake for the writer?
  14. Who is the intended audience?
    1. Is the writer addressing one group or more than one group of readers?
    1. Is the writer trying to bring an audience into being?
    1. What kind of relationship is the writer trying to establish with readers?
    1. What assumptions about readers does the writer seem to make?
  15. How does the writer use language?
    1. How does the writer use ethos, pathos, and logos to appeal to the audience?
    1. What is the writer’s tone?
    1. What does the writer’s word choice show about his or her assumptions about readers?
    1. Does the writer use specialized terms or slang?
    1. Are there memorable figures of speech?
    1. Does the writer stereotype?
  16. What is your evaluation of the rhetorical effectiveness?
    1. Does the writer accomplish his or her purposes?
    1. What constraints, if any, qualify the writing’s effectiveness?

Draft the essay:

Once you’ve completed the pre-analysis, draft the essay. The essay should include:

  1. Header, essay title, heading in GCU Style
  2. An introduction paragraph with a thesis statement
  3. At least three body paragraphs
  4. A conclusion paragraph

Also, you will need to include a References page and in-text citations formatted in GCU Style with at least TWO scholarly sources outside of class texts.

Submit this assignment to your instructor in the assignment drop box AND post this draft as an attachment in the Module 2 Rhetorical Analysis Peer Review forum

by Day 3 of Week 2.

GI Science Building

Background
You are a consultant that help your client (GI Science Building) export their product to Mexico. (the exported product is Reflective Guard). GI Building Sciences is a real Australia privately-own company, which manufacture and distribute high quality reflective bubble insulation product. The GI company would like to expand to Mexico market. 
The website of GI Building Sciences is https://www.gibuildingsciences.com.au

Writing content:
. 1. The project (what, why, how)
. 
2. A comprehensive analysis of the client’s business, its challenges and objectives



Tips:
1. You have write a similar paper for me several days ago. I will also post the paper and you can have a look.
2. I will provide you a sample. this sample is written with similar wrting requirement; however, it is different company and different export country. this sample is a company exporting to Malaysia. (notice: my essay require to export to Mexico). 

3. When you write about the exported product (Reflective Guard). You need to mention its character, which is bubble. 
Why the product is made of bubbles and roughly what material does the product consist of (different insulation materials may pay different taxes in Mexico) Bubble are air. Air is a fantastic insulator for heat and cold, and also for noise, and for condensation control.
For example when referring to heat, a kitchen oven has glass door, with two layers of glass and air between the glass. Similarly, a thermos flask (link) also uses air as good insulator to keep the contents hot or cold.
For noise, you will know that when you go to airport, you will see the glass is great insulator from the sound of jet engines. Again it is two layers of glass with air between them. We use trapped bubble of air as great insulator.
The third benefit is that the bubble of air works to control condensation in buildings. This is controlled by reducing what is termed ‘dew point’. Dew point can cause condensation in buildings that are not correctly insulated. This results in mould and mildew forming and makes the building not safe for occupants. Dew point is very common in buildings that have air conditioning or heating. Dew point occurs when the temperature between outside ambient temperate and the temperature inside the building are too different. Then condensation will form

History of flags

Read the following article from the New York Times about attempts to change the design of the state flag of Nebraska: Nebraska’s Flag Lacks Pizazz (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/10/us/flag-state-nebraska-design-logo-artist.html?hpw&rref=us&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well). Afterward, pick any state in the Union except California, and research the state flag of that particular state. Who designed the flag you chose, and what does the design say about the people that created it? After writing a brief history of that flag, post an image of the current state flag at the top of the essay, and create a flag of your own design that you think would represent the state of your choice today, and use this flag design website (http://flag-designer.appspot.com/#d=4&c1=0&c2=7&c3=2&o=8&c4=7&s=9&c5=0). Explain your new design and why you chose the colors and images that you did.

it is is not a new thing that flags have deep histories and are symbols that are way greater than the cloth they are printed on or the paint used in the pieces of cloth. Writing about the history of flags is like writing about the history of the target state at the initiation of each state. Indeed, the history of flags intriguingly gives a deep understanding of the people who were important in each state at the time of design and adoption of these flags. This why writing about the history of flags should greatly interest you.

flags are symbols of independence of states and also symbols within which every core aspiration of the founding fathers is embedded. The flags tell a story of what the founding fathers valued as well as what they fought for and believed is best for future generations. Each state had unique circumstances and explored these circumstances to design unique yet representative flags.

**Please do not write about the California state flag. I will lower your grade by a full letter grade if you write about the California state flag. Also, you should be aware that the history of the flag of the state of Georgia is long, winding and complex. Should you choose that state flag you would be writing about an extra challenging history.**

Fake News Exposition and Analysis Speech

Assignment 3 – Fake News Exposition and Analysis Speech with outline and annotated reference page

Identify a “fake news” article from a reputable news agency. Write a one page outline fact checking the article to explain its lack of logic and evidence. Provide a two source annotated bibliography to support your analysis along with a citation for the fake news article. Present the news article to the class then present your critique to the class.

PART TWO

1.) In retrospect, now equipped with a critical capacity to evaluate logic, share a fallacious idea you once held. SHORT AND SIMPLE

2.) Share a time you’ve been a “confident idiot” or “lie witness”

3.) Share a time you “metacognated” outside of the classroom.

4.) What’s a sacrosanct egoism you hold?

5.) Provide an example of purpose driven reasoning; preferably, one you once held.

6.) Is there a cognitive bias you feel particularly susceptible to?

7.)  Share a time you overcame a complex intellectual endeavor

8.) Have you ever succumbed to the fallacy of a single story?

9.) Have you ever been subjected to a single story; how did you negotiate the impertinent interpellation?

10.) Share your experiences of “Blue Collar Brilliance.” Have you ever underestimated another’s aptitude? Has your own aptitude ever been dismissed based on the false associations between occupation and intelligence?

PART 3

How can schools foster creativity, how might you construct an educational exercise with these values in mind?  5-7 SENTENCES

PART 4

  1. Robinson defines creativity as the provision of “original ideas that have value.” In the last line of “Blue Collar Brilliance, ” Rose writes, “Affirmation of diverse intelligence is not a retreat to a softhearted definition of the mind.” What do you think Rose and Robinson are pushing back against, what does he mean by “softhearted”? Last class, we talked about creativity as it pertains to children. It was suggested that children are engines of creativity in their ability to create toys out of refuse. While a valid argument, does this actually satisfy Robinson’s definition of creativity? While the newly invented toy or game might have value to the child at play, does this toy or game actually have “value”? How might one define value? Is it determined by the individual or society? How might we distinguish between expressiveness and creativity?
  2. Robinson laments the “benign” but “profoundly mistaken” advice many receive to discourage their artistic passion in deference to the market desires of industrialism. In your experience, did this pervasive capitalist pragmatism suppress a passion or did you find new outlets and times to indulge that creative drive? Hobbies are luxuries of time and resources, but are you able to maintain a particular activity you are passionate about?

Theories and Principles of Organizational Change

Introduction

Introduce your four-stage organizational change plan by identifying, summarizing, and diagramming the differences experienced by Riverbend City’s medical professionals and the local Hmong community.


Building a Foundation for Change


Address the following:
• How will you engage the stakeholders?
• What will you do to help both sides realize their common ground and shared goals?
• How will you go about building capacity for collaboration?
• Include a diagram that illustrates the dynamics of the situation and the differences experienced by the medical professionals and the local Hmong community.
o Note: Examples of diagramming to help stakeholders understand and face current reality can be found in the Stroh text, Systems Thinking for Social Change, Chapters 7 and 8. See Figures 7.12, 7.13, and 8.1.


Facing Current Reality


Build understanding to help the medical professionals and the members of the Hmong community through systems mapping:
• Identify necessary people to interview about the history of the current situation.
o Provide a rationale for your selection.
• List the questions you will ask to gain systemic insights and deepen your understanding of the problem and to ultimately establish a clear goal for which you can arrive at a consensus.
o Explain how your questions will help in achieving these insights.


Making an Explicit Choice


• Expose the possible quick fixes for maintaining the status quo.
• Identify the costs and possible issues for making long-term changes that will improve the situation and change the existing cultures.
• Suggest a visionary solution that you believe will address the need for change and provide your rationale.


Bridging the Gap


• Create a plan to increase people’s awareness of how the system functions.
• Describe how you will rewire causal feedback relationships.
• Suggest some ways in which you might shift mental models.
• Identify the data you will need to gather to measure positive movement.


Conclusion


Conclude by showing how you have harnessed the power of systems thinking with your plan.


Additional Requirements


• Font: Times New Roman, 12 points.
• Written communication: Writing should be free from errors that detract from the overall message.
• References: Include at least 5 properly cited scholarly or peer-reviewed references.
• APA Style and Format: Be sure to use proper APA format and style throughout your paper.

Ethics And Social Responsibility

For this assignment, you will identify potential ethical issues related to decisions that are made. You will examine what impact ethical considerations may have on decision-making processes and what impact corporate social responsibility can have on the outcome of decision-making for an organization as a whole.


Identify a business in your community. This can be your place of employment, a business with which you are familiar, or a business that you research in the University Library (Wells Fargo, Enron, Bank of America, Pepsi, etc.).


Develop a 10- to 15-slide presentation (including detailed speaker notes) in which you evaluate the ethical and social responsibility practices within your chosen organization. You may use Microsoft® PowerPoint®. Include the following in your evaluation and speaker notes must be substantial and slides are bulleted:


  • Title slide (1 slide)
  • Reference slide (1 slide) – site a minimum of 3 references
  • Select a major business decision recently made by the business – explain the decision in detail (in speaker notes).
  • Evaluate how the business applies corporate social responsibility within its decision-making processes – explain in detail (in speaker notes).
  • Identify potential ethical issues related to the major business decision that was recently made and determine the effect that these issues may have had on a decision-making processes in general at the business – explain why (in speaker notes).
  • Discus how critical thinking can be used to improve corporate social responsibility best practices – explain in detail your position (in speaker notes).
  • References should be included in the speaker notes for each slide that requires a reference. The presentation should include relevant media and visual aids that are consistent with the content.


    Include the speaker /presenter notes to explain the key points in your presentation on each slide.
    Cite a minimum of 3 references in the speaker notes.


    Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
    Submit your assignment.


    ** Important note: You have only one attempt available to complete assignment and must be submitted by 6:00pm PST on day of class week 5.  

An issue of citizenship

At this point in the semester, students get the opportunity to study topic of interest to their own scholarly pursuits, however, students are required to choose one concern of citizenship covered in class discussions and readings. This paper must identify a problem regarding that idea of citizenship. This assignment requires students to begin working with secondary research in earnest. A Proposal must explain the target audience, message, and purpose of the Research Project. In this essay, students should explicitly explain what they plan to study and argue concerning their topics for the Research Essay. As part of the project, students also are required to include an annotated bibliography of sources. The annotated bibliography should include: proper citation, a summary of the source, any important quotes from the source, an explanation of how the source is related to the topic idea, and an analysis of how it will be used in the project. Here are the requirements:

Proper formatting according to the syllabus.
1,000 words minimum (approximately 3-4 pages) essay that addresses an issue of citizenship from class discussion and readings.
*Per the syllabus, word counts are for the text of the essay alone and exclude headings, Works Cited, etc.

A minimum of three secondary sources used within the essay and properly cited and formatted. These should include popular and scholarly sources.
An outline for the Research Project that is 300 words minimum
An annotated bibliography of six secondary sources. Each annotation must be at least 100 words. (See Activity 10.5 in UAH 336 for details.)
A Works Cited on the final page with all sources used. Use correct MLA, APA, or CMS formatting.
Submit to the assignment location on the course website.
This step in the larger semester project requires students to begin focusing heavily on the evaluation and use of secondary sources. For secondary sources, students will also need to enter the “archives” and research what has been studied, reported on, said about, or left out regarding the chosen topic, specifically regarding academic research. Students will need to do research to see if anyone has ever done any kind of research into this group, space, issue, or related topic. This assignment is designed to develop the research needed for the next project. In addition to the learning outcomes covered with the first two essays, here are the additional learning outcomes covered with this assignment:

Relates sources in context with other research
Revises writing across multiple drafts
Develops a research question and strategy
Finds quality sources through research

Reflective Practice: Authentic Formative Assessment

Introduction

All instructors can recall the period when they watched a learner have an achievement studying moment, just to find in the next days that the learner forgot the details, could not show the ability, or, much worse, had forgotten the lesson totally. The fight for learners to study, apply, retain and demonstrate what they have studied is real. Nevertheless, a developing body of research is showing that metacognitive technique, particularly reflective evaluation, enables learners to cross over any barrier between retaining and learning both skills and content.

The notion that reflection gives advantage to students has been existing since the Plato era, who depicted reflection as “a discussion the mind holds with itself.” With the development of the practice of authentic formative evaluation in classrooms around the globe, evaluation is changing from an end-point estimation into an encouraging action that educates both learning and teaching along the way. Metacognitive procedures, particularly reflective evaluation, are innately formative in nature. In the meta-investigation research, instructive specialist Fernández, (2018) gives proof that providing learners’ period for reflection leads in their improved maintenance of scholarly material, which thus prompts improved educational accomplishment. Lasen et al. (2018) earlier research on techniques that improve studying likewise exhibited a solid association between learner reflection as well as improved accomplishment.

Reflective evaluation is a metacognitive plan and authentic formative appraisal methodology that motivates learners to consider their reasoning. Reflective reasoning enables learners to make sense of what they understand and do not as well as associates their studying to different encounters and data in their reality. For learners to have these expected results, the reflective evaluation ought to be done in an active, regular and endorsed way with the goal that learners develop muscle memory. In that, a reflective appraisal is best when educators deliberately and routinely give time to learners to take part in particular reflective evaluation techniques that emphasis both on learning and content processes.

Better Feedback for Students and Teachers

The reflective evaluation gives time for learners to analyze what they understood as well as to engage with reasoning about how they have studied. It performs this by constraining the learners to slow down their procedure by either verbalizing or writing what they have studied. More regularly than not, the manner in which learners study information emerge an innate part of the procedure since learners can seldom express what they have studied without discussing the manner in which they seemed to comprehend the information. This results in learners internalizing data at a deeper state by revisiting what they have studied and dynamically contextualizing it into their individual encounter. More significant, reflective evaluation opens up the chance for learners to critically analyze the manner in which they study, which contains promise in the notion of assisting them to build procedures for individual learning and study later in future (Holmberg and Duckor, 2018).

Reflective evaluation is comparably instructive for educators. When learners write reflectively on what they studied and how they studied it, the educator gets important information on what the learners did not or did understood from a specific lesson. It likewise informs the educator about the manners in which their learners study best. This information may then be broken into subsequent classes to improve the retention and learning of learners, thus resulting in advanced teaching as well as improved educational results.

A significant combination of outcomes occurs when the reflective evaluation is utilized as a discussion between teacher and student. When learners note their reflections, they confirm their processing and thinking. They likewise provide significant information to the educator. When the educator collects those noted reflections besides offers immediate feedback to the learner, a whole new stage of studying takes place. The message on the reflections may guide the learner toward more strong reflection as well as cautious discourse on ensuing endeavors. This makes learners look deeper as they reason about their reasoning, which not just educate them in a much significant manner, it likewise gives an even better message for the educator as she or he contemplates the development of other lessons.

Approaches

There exist various wonderful approaches that may be utilized, however, the following maximize class time while giving authentic formative feedback for both teachers and students.

“I Learned” Statement

At the completion of a class, learners simply put down “I understood…” and then end the sentence. Instructors collect and readily review the articulations prior to giving them back to learners the following day. Preliminary attempts will possibly be concrete and simple, but if utilized consistently, learners would move to end the sentence with more insight and detail. Authentic formative response from the instructor will normally nudge learners into giving more depth in individual feedback. Moreover, teachers could use the feedback to update their training capacity. Learners benefit from this as they process individual learning and get feedback on their perception. This technique has the capacity to positively change those final few minutes of classroom period to beneficial period for teacher and students.

Percolating

This is an easy-to-employ strategy that as well can increase learning duration in the classroom. The instructor poses an inquiry of the week which is founded on an upcoming message, but that needs more compared to a simple wrong or right answer. As classroom lessons unfold, learners are given time to indicate their ideas on the inquiry at the end of each class session. As learners gain more insights every day, they explain on their feedback. This could be performed individually and with a companion, each day and learners should be empowered to present their thinking utilizing charts, drawings, writing, and diagrams. As with the statement of “I learned”, this approach provides instructors information on how learners are/not internalizing individual learning as simultaneously providing learners the chance to process current data, place it in context, and determine individual comprehension with friends (Fernández, 2018).

Talk About It

This is like the often used pair share approach. However, the stress here is for learners to not simply process their ideas, but to explain and explore how they reached their perception. In groups and pairs of three, learners share what they understood, the way that learning can be used outside of the classroom context, and the way they come to that thinking. As with the other two approaches, this could make use of the final sessions of a classroom, or it could be utilized as a classroom opener in the following lessons. By communicating through their thoughts with others, learners refute and validate concepts they have developed. They as well become more deliberate in their perception. A ready, full-classroom and discussion sessions provide the instructor with authentic formative response concerning what learners have understood.

Best Practices in Formative Assessment to Authentically Assess Students

During my classroom sessions, I discovered that learners developed some overwhelming insights on what individual was learning when provided with time duration to reflect. I also noted that students understood about the way they learn, and by sharing with their colleagues, individual normally helped one another uncover current ways to strategize their learning. I as well found that frequently learners would be vulnerable in individual documented reflections in a way that they will no longer be in the classroom. In turn, I would record back, sharing the way their content impacted me and thanking the individual for their loyalty. This indicated a powerful and stronger connection with my learners that lasted more than the time I had them in the classroom. While this is an unquantifiable outcome that standardizes academic accomplishment, it is an essential part of developing strong associations in a classroom (Dillon et al., 2018).

Provide Effective Formative Feedback

In my operations with faculty, they normally expressed issue on adding another thing to the active plate of class time. Nonetheless, what they found is that giving time to reflect utilizing a structured approach actually involve better utilization of time in the learning room, and therefore there was no urge to find a means to carve out period to make it occur. They ingrained the utilization of the processes as part of warm-up strategies and broader exit. When individual compared information on learners’ performance, it clearly shows that reflection was impacting positively on student learners, which initiated the continued utilization of reflective evaluation. Sometime later, such faculty team are sharing individual techniques and experiences with current faculty, and therefore the application of reflection has become self-generative within the faculty.

Conclusion

By involving learners in reflective evaluation during the closing and opening of a classroom session, instructors make the best use of quality classroom period. This enables a win-win for themselves and individual students — the instructors gain profoundly as to what learners are or are not understanding, and the learners gain insight on how they best learn. Empowering the use of reflective evaluation is not simply best classroom activity, but will set the phase for lasting and meaningful permanence of understanding that would positively influence individuals.

References

Dillon, S., McDonnell, A., Murphy, D., & White, L. (2018). Alternative Methods to Traditional Written Exam-Based Assessment.

Fernández, C. G. (2018). Book Review: Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Digital Education Review, (34), 115-117.

Holmberg, C., & Duckor, B. (2018). Evaluating and Supporting Teacher Practice of Formative Assessment: Assessing Posing, Pausing, and Probing Moves.

Lasen, M., Evans, S., Tsey, K., Campbell, C., & Kinchin, I. (2018). Quality of WIL assessment design in higher education: a systematic literature review. Higher Education Research & Development37(4), 788-804.