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Primary Research Essay Flowchart with Notes

Rationale/Problem Statement/Background


This section calls for secondary research (from the library books or BHCC online databaseshttp://www.bhcc.mass.edu/library/databases/bysubject/) Relevant information includes introduction to the current situation regarding a chosen topic portraying the prevalence and/or urgency of an issue, including controversial views from studies that have been done. The goal is to point out the justification for such a study. For this, you need to have in-text citations, which will be complemented in “Works Cited” at the end.

Hypotheses


List a few specific objectives your study intends to examine. The tone should be tentative, using such words as “This study aims/intends… to verify/examine/investigate whether…

Primary Research Method/Design


When describing the method(s), group the questions and tie them to the hypotheses so that a reader will know the deliberate effort is made in the development of the questions – these are supposed to serve to verify your hypotheses. Don’t list questions one by one.

Participants and Procedure


For participants of your study, you need to make sure to describe the demographic information of the participants to show that the sampling is random.

Description of your procedure should highlight how effort is made to ensure random sampling and honest feedback. For this, you would need to explain the time/location of sampling and manners of conducting the surveys or interviews, whether you reassured respondents anonymity. You also need to point out what steps you take to eliminate non-usable data.

Data Results and Analysis


Use the participants responses as supporting evidence to approve or disprove your hypotheses. Make a topic sentence about each of your hypothesis, and then cite the responses/data in your table or charts to illustrate the topic sentence.

Limitations


For your research, there are a few innate limitations, and the primary research convention calls for a clear mention: length of study, small number of sampling, convenient sampling locations, the nature of self-report.

Implications/Discussions (sometimes referred to as Conclusion)


The last conventional section of a primary research paper is for a researcher to discuss any implications the study has and make proposals to all the stakeholders in your research.

The Python Code

Directions:

Modify the Python code “my_contour_3d_demo3.py” to reproduce images similar to the figures shown on the right.

For each question, please submit both
a) the figure produced by the python code and
b) the altered code.

Note: It is important that you only include the code that you alter! Otherwise your submission will be much too large and will not be graded. I have included the answer to the first question to show you what I am expecting.

1.) z=(cos x cos y) e-(√(x^2+y^2))/4

a)

b)
Lines 10-14

Set XY Plotting Grid

a1=-6.1;b1=6.1;
a2=-6.1;b2=6.1;

n=501;

Lines 24-29

Define function to be plotted f(x,y)

def r(x,y):
return np.sqrt(x2+y2)

def f(x,y):
return (np.cos(x)np.cos(y))np.exp(-r(x,y)/4)

2.) z=(xy2)/(x2+y2)

3.) z=1/(4×2+y2)

4.) z=e(-y ) cos x

5.) z=(xy(x2-y2))/(x2+y2)

6.) z=y2-y4-x2

7.) z=1+cos(x2+y2)

8.) z=-4/(1+x2+2y2)

9.) z=-x/√(x2+y2)

10.) z=x4/(x4+y2)

11.) z=(2x2y)/(x4+y2)

12.) z=(2xy)/(x^2+y^2)

Place an order

Poisson Distribution

Introduction


Where the rate of event of some occasion, r (in this diagram called lambda or l) is little, the scope of likely conceivable outcomes will lie close to the zero line. Implying that when the rate r is little, zero is an imaginable number to get. As the rate winds up higher (as the event of the thing we are viewing progresses toward becoming ordinary citizen), the focal point of the bend advances toward the right, and in the end, some place around r = 7, zero events really turned out to be improbable. This is the way the Poisson world looks graphically. Every last bit of it is naturally self-evident. Presently we will back up a little and start over, with you and your post box. Assume you commonly get 4 bits of mail for every day.

That turns into your desire, yet there will be a sure spread: some of the time somewhat more, some of the time somewhat less, now and again nothing by any means. Given just the normal rate, for a specific time of perception (bits of mail every day, phone calls every hour, whatever), and accepting that the procedure, or blend of procedures, that deliver the occasion stream are basically arbitrary, the Poisson Distribution will disclose to you how likely it is that you will get 3, or 5, or 11, or some other number, amid one time of perception.

That is, it predicts the level of spread around a known normal rate of event. (The normal or likeliest real event is the mound on every one of the Poisson bends appeared previously). For little estimations of p, the Poisson Distribution can reproduce the Binomial Distribution (the example of Heads and Tails in coin hurls), and it is a lot less demanding to figure.
The Poisson conveyance has a solid hypothetical foundation and wide range of commonsense applications. Bringing unique or potentially unordinary cases, highlighting Poisson forms, may give chances to expanding understudies’ mindfulness and interests in Statistics. One critical exercise the creator of this paper has learned is that introduction of measurable cases, counting Poisson precedents, ought to be joined and improved by critical business, social or then again recorded foundation depiction and talk. For instance, an introduction of the WWII V1 London besieging case might be joined by a short youtube.com film, demonstrating how V1 Buzz bombs were being propelled to hit London targets (V-1 Flying Bomb, 2011). Such a presentation to foundation data makes “specialized” cases additionally fascinating and informational.


Applications


The Poisson conveyance can be gotten from a progression of Exponentially conveyed irregular factors, Sn = X1+ X2+…+ Xn. Thinking about an irregular variable, N(t), with the end goal that N(t) = max{n: Sn ≤ t} and given all factors Xk , k=1,2,…,n, have the equivalent exponential conveyance, f(x) = µe – µx , x ≥ 0, the N(t) variable has this conveyance:
Thusly, the Poisson arbitrary variable can be “extended” over longer or shorter time interims. Since µ is the (normal) number of occasions per one unit of time or space, µt


Uses of the Poisson likelihood will be such a number for each t units. One needs to ensure that procedure N(t) is stationary inside time interim (0,t). Regardless of whether one watches patients landing at a crisis room, vehicles driving up to a gas station, rotting radioactive molecules, bank clients going to their bank, or customers being served at a money enlist, the floods of such occasions commonly pursue the Poisson procedure.

The fundamental suspicion is that the occasions are measurably free and the rate, µ, of these occasions (the normal number of the occasions per time unit) is consistent. The rundown of utilizations of the Poisson circulation is long.


Space arranged Poisson factors are less normal or well known. In any case, one can discover some intriguing instances of such factors in latest Statistics books. For instance: The quantity of typographical blunders found in a composition or the aggregate number of home runs hit in Major League Baseball games. Among the above cases, of a specific intrigue is the last one. Amid the World War II, Germans terminated a large number of alleged V-1 buzz bombs over the English Channel toward London. Around 800 bombs figured out how to hit a few focuses in London. The rest either did not make it over the water or were devastated by RAF.


The Poisson appropriation is an extraordinary instance of the Binomial dispersion. In a few circumstances for previous one can be utilized to rough the last one. It is especially possible if, for of a Binomial irregular variable, the quantity of preliminaries, n, is to a great degree substantial and the likelihood of accomplishment, p, is little. As indicated the Poisson dissemination gives a decent estimation of the Binomial appropriation, if n ≥ 100, and np ≤ 10. In such circumstances, occasions ascribed to triumphs are called uncommon occasions.

The Poisson appropriation has been especially valuable in taking care of such occasions. Poisson conveyance has a few applications in structural building. In earth shudder building, in an explicit time interim the likelihood of event of an earth tremor at a specific blame pursues Poisson dissemination. Event of typhoons in a specific day and age pursues Poisson conveyance. From the past experience it is realized that on a normal at regular intervals 3 violent winds hit the waterfront zone of Kundha and Ofuna states. In the event that it is expected that the typhoon hitting the beach front regions pursues Poisson dissemination then what is the likelihood of two twisters crossing the waterfront region of Kundha and Ofuna in the following two years.
he Poisson Distribution is an instrument utilized in likelihood hypothesis insights to foresee the measure of variety from a known normal rate of event, inside a given time period. As it were, if the normal rate at which an explicit occasion occurs inside a predefined time period is known or can be resolved (e.g., Event “An” occurs, by and large, “x” times each hour), at that point the Poisson Distribution can be utilized as pursues: To decide how much variety there will probably be from that normal number of events. To decide the plausible most extreme and least number of times the occasion will happen inside the predetermined time period. Organizations can use the Poisson Distribution to analyze how they might have the capacity to find a way to enhance their operational proficiency. For example, an investigation finished with the Poisson Distribution may uncover how an organization can mastermind staffing so as to have the capacity to all the more likely handle top periods for client benefit calls.


The Poisson Distribution can be basically connected to a few business activities that are regular for organizations to take part in. As noted above, breaking down tasks with the Poisson Distribution can give organization the executives experiences into dimensions of operational effectiveness and recommend approaches to build proficiency and enhance activities.

Here are a portion of the manners in which that an organization may use investigation with the Poisson Distribution. Check for satisfactory client benefit staffing. Ascertain the normal number of client benefit calls every hour that require over 10 minutes to deal with. At that point, compute the Poisson Distribution to locate the plausible greatest number of calls every hour that may come in requiring over ten minutes to deal with.

Expecting that the most extreme number of 10+ minutes calls happens, assess whether client benefit staffing is satisfactory to deal with every one of the calls without making clients look out for hold. Poisson dissemination has a few applications in structural building. In earth shudder designing, in an explicit time interim the likelihood of event of an earth tremor at a specific blame pursues Poisson dissemination. Event of violent winds in a specific day and age pursues Poisson appropriation.


Utilize the Poisson recipe to assess whether it is monetarily reasonable to keep a store open 24 hours every day. Compute the normal number of offers made by the store amid the additional medium-term move – the period from midnight to 8 A.M. Utilizing the circulation recipe at that point, ascertain the plausible most reduced number of offers that may be made amid the medium-term move. At long last, decide if that most minimal likely deals figure speaks to adequate income to take care of the considerable number of costs (wages and pay rates, power, and so on.) of keeping the store open amid that day and age, in addition to give a sensible benefit. Audit and assess business protection inclusion. Decide the normal number of misfortunes or cases that happen every year and that are secured by the organization’s business protection.

At that point complete a Poisson likelihood estimation to decide the greatest and least quantities of cases that may sensibly be documented amid any one year. Audit the expense of your protection and the inclusion it gives. Think about whether maybe you’re overpaying – that is, paying for an inclusion level that you likely needn’t bother with, given the plausible most extreme number of cases. On the other hand, you may find that you’re under guaranteed – that if what the Poisson appropriation appears as the likely most noteworthy number of cases really happened one year, your protection inclusion would be insufficient to cover the misfortunes.


Because of the discrete idea of the Poisson circulation, it can be connected to control frameworks to assess the unwavering quality of the framework in regards to disappointments identified with the parts of the power framework. It can likewise be utilized for booking of the preventive upkeep, enrolling of the fix group also, arranging/buying reasons for the extra segments and to assess the availability of the framework amid most pessimistic scenario issues/disappointments (Since the disappointment of every segment in a power framework is discrete). There are different parts, for example, transformers, transfers, wires, circuit breakers, electrical cables, posts, and so forth in a control framework. The disappointment of a few parts may influence the disappointment of different parts. Along these lines, the disappointment of every one of these parts may not be autonomous of the others. The examination appeared here are the starter aftereffects of an extensive report related to the assessment of intensity framework unwavering quality. In this manner it is accepted that the disappointment of every part is autonomous of the others. Computing a Poisson conveyance likelihood requires the utilization of the number e, portrayed in the accompanying box. In sub-atomic science, insights, material science, and building, most computations utilizing the utilization of logarithms are in one of two bases, either base 10 or base e. The number e is the base of the normal logarithms, assigned as ln.

For instance, ln 2 is proportional to loge 2. The estimation of e is generally equivalent to 2.7182818. e is called a silly number since its decimal portrayal neither ends nor rehashes. In such manner, it resembles the number (pi, the proportion of the boundary of a hover to its width). Truth be told, pi and e are connected by the articulation eip = 1, where I is equivalent to the square base of −1.Many number crunchers have a ln key for discovering normal logarithms. Numerous adding machines additionally have an ex key used to discover the antilogarithm base.


The Poisson appropriation work was utilized to anticipate the transformer disappointments in the matrix of the power frameworks of the state service organization of Adiyaman area. The likelihood thickness work, likelihood dispersion work and the private dimension of transformer disappointments were first determined for a time of one year.

The counts were done for a time of five years. The outcomes demonstrate that this technique can be connected effectively to gauge the segment disappointments in power frameworks so as to enlist fix group, to plan support, to stock extras, and to break down the generally framework unwavering quality. The outcomes gave here are primer and dependent on a number of suppositions which were referenced in the presentation segment. There are different parameters that should be incorporated into the examination. For example, the disappointment of a transformer may influence or start the disappointment of different transformers in the framework, or the disappointment of other parts, (for example, wires, breakers and so on.). Either man made or characteristic occasions may start the disappointment of a transformer. These parameters should be incorporated for an entire examination.


The Poisson appropriation is one that is regularly utilized in wellbeing financial aspects. Wikipedia has a decent essential synopsis of the Poisson dispersion; Wolfram MathWorld gives a more complex examination. The conveyance is where ‘λ’ is equivalent to the quantity of expected events in a period. The circulation communicates the likelihood of various occasions (‘k’) happening in a settled timeframe if these occasions happen with a known normal rate, and are free of the time since the last occasion. The difference and the mean for a Poisson circulation are the equivalent. Medicinal services financial analysts can utilize the appropriation to decide how unique factors (eg: pay, smoking, restorative medications) influence the likelihood of watching the event of a specific number of occasions (eg: ailments, passings, and so on.).


The Poisson conveyance is utilized to portray the appropriation of uncommon occasions in an expansive populace. For instance, at a specific time, there is a sure likelihood that a specific cell inside an expansive populace of cells will get a change. Change securing is an uncommon occasion. On the off chance that the huge populace of cells is isolated into littler societies, as is done in the vacillation test, the Poisson dispersion can be utilized to decide the likelihood that a specific little culture will contain a transformed cell. Computing a Poisson conveyance likelihood requires the utilization of the number e, portrayed in the accompanying box. In sub-atomic science, insights, material science, and building, most computations utilizing the utilization of logarithms are in one of two bases, either base 10 or base e. The number e is the base of the normal logarithms, assigned as ln. For instance, ln 2 is proportional to loge 2. The estimation of e is generally equivalent to 2.7182818. e is called a silly number since its decimal portrayal neither ends nor rehashes. In such manner, it resembles the number (pi, the proportion of the boundary of a hover to its width). Truth be told, pi and e are connected by the articulation eip = 1, where I is equivalent to the square base of −1. Many number crunchers have a ln key for discovering normal logarithms. Numerous adding machines additionally have an ex key used to discover the antilogarithm base e.
The Poisson conveyance is utilized to portray the appropriation of uncommon occasions in an expansive populace. For instance, at a specific time, there is a sure likelihood that a specific cell inside an expansive populace of cells will get a change. Change securing is an uncommon occasion. On the off chance that the huge populace of cells is isolated into littler societies, as is done in the vacillation test, the Poisson dispersion can be utilized to decide the likelihood that a specific little culture will contain a transformed cell.

The Poisson process is a model for a discontinuous random variable. Time is continuous, but the variable is discrete. The variable can represent a ‘jump’ in a quantity or the occurrence of an ‘event.’jump-diffusion models combine the continuous Brownian motion seen in Black-Scholes models (the diffusion) with prices that are allowed to jump discontinuously. The timing of the jump is usually random, and this is represented by a Poisson process. The size of the jump can also be random. As you increase the frequency of the jumps (all other parameters remaining the same), the values of calls and puts increase. The prices of binaries, and other options, can go either up or down.


Conclusion


Uses of the Poisson likelihood will be such a number for each t units. One needs to ensure that procedure N(t) is stationary inside time interim (0,t). Regardless of whether one watches patients landing at a crisis room, vehicles driving up to a gas station, rotting radioactive molecules, bank clients going to their bank, or customers being served at a money enlist, the floods of such occasions commonly pursue the Poisson procedure. The fundamental suspicion is that the occasions are measurably free and the rate, µ, of these occasions (the normal number of the occasions per time unit) is consistent. The rundown of utilizations of the Poisson circulation is long.

Pay What You Want

1.0 Introduction


Over the years, various firms have attempted different marketing strategies with the aim of competitive gain advantage over their rivals. Most of them have been using product and services to policies and conquered the markets. In the recent, most of the companies have tried to exploit pricing strategies instead. This comes at the time that when firm realizes that giving customer’s freedom to choose what they would like to pay for their product and services influence their buying behavior. Through this, they have developed a unique pricing strategy of PWYW which is distinct from other pricing mechanisms. In the past consumer, used to bid for product and services but they were uncertain about the acceptability and product features. The introduction of “Pay What You Want” has fully transferred the pricing decision to the consumers. In this case, customers have maximum control over what they pay for the product and services.


The idea was used to public goods including the entry tickets for museum and pars, club membership, drives for public TV membership. Moreover, the idea has taken a different direction to the profit-making organization. It has gained attention among private goods such as Music, restaurant and Videos in the context of pricing. “Pay What You Want” idea appears to suggest though the growing number of a real-life situation that it is going to become a profitable pricing strategy unlike what economic models and the common sense forecast (Kunter, 2357).


The introduction of ‘’Pay what you want’’ Price strategies have added an exciting issue to explain why consumers could significantly pay for the value of something they could easily get for free. Many still wonder why people still pay a premium for the ethically certified products. Even though various theories have provided explanations on reasons behind the matter, it is still unclear why customers do so. Also, these theories have failed to explain the decision concerning whether and how much to for any profit-making organization for private goods. This has prompted to research matter to determine its viability (Chao, 176).

2.0 Theory and hypothesis
a) Hypothesis
This research is based on the following hypothesis under PWYW condition:
H1: price paid in Face-face interaction is greater than Zero.
H2: fairness has a positive influence on final prices.
H3: Altruism has a positive impact on prices offered by consumers
H4: Satisfaction has a positive effect on the price offered by users
H5: Loyalty has a has a positive effect on the price offered by users
b) Theories
Kim, Natter, and Spann (2009, 2010) conducted some of the early studies on this pricing mechanism. Based on three field studies carried out in Germany in 2006-2007, they found that PWYW could generate prices well above zero and even increase sales. Also, the authors found a significant link between voluntary payments by consumers and certain individual variables such as income, satisfaction and a psychometric measure of the perceived fairness of the price paid. The theoretical work also focused on the profitability of PWYW prices with specific delivery conditions. In particular, it has been argued that PWYW tends to be more profitable when suppliers have low marginal costs (Raju and Zhang 2010) and when costs are high (Fernandez and Nahata 2010). Gneezy et al. (2010) analyzed in an experimental way how the price policy associated with the sale of souvenir photos in a large theme park interacts with a charitable contribution. Their results showed that PWYW’s prices almost tripled their incomes relative to traditionally fixed prices when consumers said that half of these revenues were donated to charities, but that only had a positive impact on the lowest incomes. More recently, Gneezy et al. (2012) found experimental tests in which, according to PWYW, some people engaged in voluntary exclusion behavior motivated by a concern for identity and self-image. In other words, when people think the “fair” price is high, they tend to pay less than that price and respond entirely by giving up the opportunity to buy (instead of looking for and spending very little.


In “Pay What You Want” setting, customers have maximum control of prices they pay, and thus they can choose to pay any amount for the goods or services. Theoretically, the wide- range of probable prices is fundamentally limitless because there is no threshold price. The economically cautious customers who normally maximizes the value of a single purchase can take advantage of the mechanism of paying a zero price. Through our study, we realize that the platform works effectively in both online and offline depending on successful implementations of PWYW. According to the owner of Wiener Deewan restaurant, with offers PWYW terms on a meal, subscriber prices are an example of typical behavior ranging from $0 to $20, with an average price of 7.49 €. Consumer motivation differs from the neoclassical economic hypothesis approach that users maximize their utilities. Therefore, other influences must play a significant role in determining “Pay What You Want” ‘ prices. Through this, we go to determine the reason behind customers paying favorable prices at PWYW mechanism and develop models expounding the prices paid to firms operating PWYW.


Although most economic models are based on the assumption that self-interest determines the behavior of all individuals (FehrandSchmidt2006), many studies suggest that people are concerned about the well-being of others or the fact that they are kind or just. (Bolton 1991, Gundlach and Murphy 1993, Rabin 1993, Fehrand Schmidt 1999, Thaler 1985, Kahneman et al. 1986). Although altruistic motives may be the source of these preferences, they are not selfish in the context of contributions to public goods. However, they are unlikely to be an important driver of consumer choice in PWYW market transactions. This view is empirically confirmed by the results of Kim et al. (2009), who found no significant relationship between altruism and the prices paid in PWYW.


On the other hand, equity participation can be a determining factor in the profitability of PWYW’s prices. Marketing and economic studies have shown that consumers’ judgment of price independence has a considerable influence on consumer behavior (Thaler 1985, Xia, Monroe and Coxi 2004, Boltonn, Warlop and Alba 2003, Boltonn and Limón 1999). On the other hand, recent data from PWYW’s empirical price studies suggest that consumers are trying to pay “seemingly fair” prices because of fairness (Kim et al., 2009, Gneezy et al. , 2012). Therefore, our model considers equity as one of the key drivers of PWYW’s behavioral price success. In particular, we rely on the fundamental work of Fehr and Smith (1999), who see justice as an “egoistic dislike of inequality.” In other words: “People are not interested in inequality, among others, but only in the correction of their means of payment about the payment of others” (Fehrand Schmidt 1999: 819).


The actions of individuals are often determined by how they are perceived by others and by their concern about how their decisions affect the behavior of others (Ariely et al., 2009, Altman et al., 1996). According to the previous literature on economics and the biology of evolution, we assume this type of behavioral factors under the concept of reciprocity. In particular, we consider two types of reciprocity. The first is a type of widely documented behavior called “mutual altruism” (Fehr and Fischbacher 2003). This can be described as “the exchange of altruistic acts between unrelated persons and relatives” (Packer, 1977: 441). For example, studies have shown that smiling girls tend to be less friendly (Tiddand Lochard, 1978). Similarly, the use of free samples has been shown to be a particularly effective sales technique (Cialdini 1993).


According to the social relations theory, Heyman and Ariely (2004) outline two kinds of exchange relations: money market relations and social market relations. The money market relations, in this case, is the interchange between two or more parties governed by the utilization of significant worth or quantity (for example, the price of a product). On the other hand, social market relations are described by a lack of payment and trading partners in respect to the norms of social change (rules of reciprocity, rules of cooperation and rules of distribution), while commercial relations refer to the rules of the market. According to (Shampanier, Mazar and Ariely 2007), Pay what you want can dissolve the general relationship between the seller and the buyer in the money market and give the buyer the total price. To the extent that consumers can offer any price, even zero, correlation is not governed by the rules of the changing market rules of social change that affect the behavior of the buyer (Østerhus 1997). This implies distribution rules that imply that individuals aspire to an equitable distribution of resources and that they are particularly resilient in autonomous people (Elster, 1989). The violation of these exchange rules in the social context in the case of Pay what you want does not matter; it can lead to fears and social disapproval of others. Therefore, the benefits of a missing payment must outweigh the expected fears and the fear of disregarding social norms. According to Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1986), customers under normal circumstances are more willing to suffer a loss than to receive inequality in any situation. Lynn (1990) further explains why consumers can pay more than zero. Discover that the restaurant’s customers have decided to pay more than necessary for their already used tickets. Lynn concludes that some people can use pricing as a way to manage emotions to avoid being poor or cheaper. Because our research has been found in a democratic society, we expect many users to respect social principles, and we do not want to look like a cheap-fashioned co-operation (Kim, 420).


3.0 Data collection and analysis


In our study, we performed three studies with goods in services industries, i.e., restaurant, cinema, and delicatessen. Throughout our research, we aimed at determining the impact of PWYW on the sales and revenue of the firms. We conduct an experiment at three different fields, evaluate and determine the impact of the price strategy at hand.


Study 1: buffet meal at a restaurant


The experiment was conducted in a Persian restaurant with accommodation of 60 guests for eight weeks. In the first two weeks, the firm offers buffer lunch under a PWYW mechanism which originally cost $7.99 which was removed. The whole observation lasted for six weeks, and we collect daily sales data. The PWYW offer of buffer lunch was advertised within the restaurant and in the city using fliers. During the time of offer, 253 customers place their orders for the buffer. When these customers asked for the bill, the waiter only tells them to pay what they want for the buffer. To test the customer behavior on the PWYW, customers who purchase the buffer were surveyed and asked some of the queries to determine their assessment on fairness, altruism, and loyalty, the consciousness of price and level of satisfaction.


Study 2: Movie Screenings at a Cinema


This experiment was conducted in a Cinema in a small town. The firm has eight theatres with a capacity of 100 to 350. The Cinema executives decided to offer the tickets under PWYW which originally cost ranging from $ 4.00 to $ 4.5. The offer lasted for three days, and we collected daily sales data. Also, we analyze the last three months of sales data.

No advertisement was conducted for the offer but only posted was hung in the entrance of the firm and inside the theater. Normally, people pay before they enter the theater, but when they inquire for the bill, the cashier tells them to pay what they want. Unlike the first study, the usual prices were accessible customers. 247 customer brought tickets under offer, and we subject them to survey to get their views. We asked this customer to state the price they pay for each ticket, and we recorded for each customer.


Study 3: hot beverages at a delicatessen


Lastly, we conducted our experiment in a delicatessen in a small-medium town near a metropolitan area — the firm stocks various items including the chocolate, Antipasti sandwiches and hot and cold beverages with an eating space capacity of 12- 22 customers. The experiment lasted for eight weeks, and we undertake our observation and recording sale data. In the first two weeks, the company offered the beverage (hot and cold) for special promotion of pay what you want to pay.

Poster inside the shop and at the entrance was used to highlight the offer. During this offer, 814 cups of hot and cold beverage were sold. The data o the customers who brought was identified, and 271 was subjected to survey.

Cultural Analysis of the “Friends” Television Show

Introduction


The American television show “Friends” revolved around the lives of six young friends. The television show aired on NBC between 1994 and 2004 in ten seasons (Crane et. al., 1994). The television show was created in with the background of an area that frequently experienced periods of recession; as such, an average American citizen has to fail several times before winning. Producers of the television show focused on people in the mid-twenties struggling to make it life.

The target audience was young people in their mid-twenties who were aggressively tarmacking for their first job. Additionally, they were struggling after surviving in a protected environment provided in the college settings. Notably, the struggle would be made easier with a friend leading to the production of a television show illustrating the struggle underwent by young people after completing college education.


Reception


The television show gained massive popularity during the period it was aired for ten seasons. The show was one of the highest rated in the United States since it won an Emmy Awards for being the Best Comedy Series. In addition, the show was praised by critics for displaying content with the absence of any violent segments.

Over the years, Friends managed to be among the most entertaining television shows because it was a clear portrayal of the struggles of young people. In addition, it emphasized on the significance of creating and maintaining relationships. The show was able to appeal to most young people since they could relate to the realities of their lives.


Cultural Analysis of the Friends Television Show
Race


Friends Television Show did support any form of racism as all the characters were given balanced roles without favoritism and discrimination. For instance, Joey was from Spanish origin but formed an essential party of the group without being shown any element of discrimination. In addition, Emily who played a role of Ross’ second was a Briton. The cast featured in a coffee shop sitting on the same couch talking about different matters.

According to critics, the cast dominated various activities in the coffee shop without giving chances to customers or bystanders. In addition, some characters belonging to the minority groups did not seem to play important roles in the show since the director kept the whites actively involved in most scenes. The show seems to have enforced a typical white middle-class lifestyle from the beginning to the end, which may have not reflected a conclusive picture of youths from different parts of the world.


Gender


The cast of the television show was made up of six friends including three females and males. The producers were able to convey gender equality and balance in a period of male chauvinism and gender discrimination. Consequently, the show conveyed great improvements in terms of the representation of women in mainstream media.

In addition, women were shown in a different light through Rachel’s character. Her sexual freedom illustrated a liberated woman in a male-dominated society. She was able to break the traditional stereotypes that were formed against women. Rachel starts as a woman who is financially dependent on her father and the progress to get a job as a waitress. Finally, Rachel builds herself a successful career that becomes an inspiration to most women.


Sexuality


The television show did not display any sexual content or nudity throughout its ten seasons. On the other hand, Chandler mannerisms portrayed him as gay while Joey came out as more of a womanizer. Despite the fact that homosexuality was not featured in the television show during the period, Chandler’s father was brought out as a transsexual while Ross’ ex-wife was shown as a lesbian. The show can be considered to be conveying heterosexual behavior and values to the younger audience.


Ethnicity


Situation comedy is a genre that has grown to become an important segment of American culture. The television show was able to expose the audience to a detailed ethnic background of the cast. For instance, the audience was able to learn about Chandler’s indifferent behavior towards Christmas and Thanksgiving. The show was able to depict a group of friends that operated as a family unit and supported each other.

Notably, the support resembled that given by parents and siblings. Unfortunately, the show was not able to include minority groups since it was composed of an all-American cast. This illustrated that society is biased towards choosing friends. The six friends were never shown hanging out with persons from a minority group. Blacks and Mexicans were always in the background of the café and never in the forefront of the main actions.


Pluralism


Pluralism has become an essential part of the current society since it emphasizes on inclusivity and non-discrimination. Communication must be composed of elements such as freedom of speech, expression and acceptance toward other people’s values (Ott & Mack, 2010). Television is an important medium for conveying important messages because those watching the television tend to compare their lives with those of the prominent television characters.

Some people can go a step further to imitate respective behaviors of actors, their talking and walking styles and fashion choices. Friends was taken as a show with the most realistic episodes that accurately displayed the young people’s lifestyle. The story revolves around six young friends struggling to survive in New York City on meager salaries and unstable jobs. Their struggle in relationships is also illustrated in the manner in which they kept switching partners.


Conclusion


The television show illustrated the struggles that young people underwent when living in cities like New York. The culture displayed in the show is unique as it broke the norms such as male dominance and male chauvinism that characterized the society. Additionally, the show focused on the white middle-class struggles before engaging in gainful employment.

The six friends were all American young people who lived in a middle class setting. Friends television show had instances of discrimination against the minority social groups, which are not evident in most scenes. Although express hatred was not shown towards those belonging to the minority groups, some were displayed in the background of the café.

The show also showed the biases that existing in a society where people get to choose their friends and acquaintances. In addition, the show was able to display the value of living in a small community where everyone could be able to find his/her identity and security. Concisely, the show focused on bringing together persons sharing similar social and economic problems and clarifying the importance of synergy through coming together to brainstorm on the possible solutions.

Gender Identity

Introduction


There is a growing belief that gender identity is a product of social construct. According to sociologists, social behavior is an acquired behavior and not an inherited behavior. Sociologists, therefore, view gender identity as an acquired behavior which is influenced by an individual’s society. In this regard, gender identity is formed through gender socialization. According to Crossman, gender identity can be defined as one’s identification as either a man or a woman (Crossman, 2017). Gender identity dictates one’s social behavior and influences how people talk, dress and present themselves to the public.


Digital game industry plays a critical role in shaping gender identity in today’s societies. A study by Terlecki et al (2010) showed that girls and women are increasingly being influenced by the representation of female characters in the video game. The authors argue that even though the current statistics show that still more men and boys are playing video games, girls and women are also gaining interests in virtual game plays (Terlecki et al., 2010). This paper will use a case study to examine to what extent girls and women are influenced by female characters in the video games. With the new trend, it is obvious that the female characters in the digital game League of Legends have influenced girls and women.


Problem Statement


A majority of the women and girls endure constant prejudice despite persistent effort by the gender to fifth for equality in all aspect of life. Some of the problems women face includes lack of clear role models which could be emulated as the struggle to emerge from the gender stigmatization. The present world provides a wide range of influence which could distract women from choosing an appropriate role model and path to follow and stamp their authority as human beings despite being women. On line sources such as video games add onto the many environment based role models which women could use to attain better recognition in the society.


Hypotheses:

  1. Girls and women are greatly influenced by the female characters in the video games
  2. Social environment greatly influence self-identity of girls and women and girls.
    Theoretical Framework (Social Science Theory)
    In support of the hypotheses, the study will use social science theories that explain the social construction of gender identity. They include; feminist, social learning and critical theories. Feminist theory is the study of the social structure of the society from the woman’s viewpoint in order to remove barriers and forces that cause gender inequalities. Feminists, therefore, concern themselves with the study of how the present social institutions are contributing to the biasness of gender identity. Social learning theory, on the other hand, attempts to explain how individual’s formation of self is influenced by the social acquired behavior. According to social learning theorists, an individual’s self-identity is a learned behavior stimulated by social stimuli, and; therefore, not an inherited behavior (Crossman, 2017). In this regard, social learning theory helps us to understand how women and girls acquired their gender identity from the society. Critical theory, like other theories, aims at critiquing the traditional social structures and attempt to change them to better social structures that makes the society to achieve its full potential.

Methodology


The study design used incorporated game play and participant observation method to collect data. Participant observation is often used as research methodology in social sciences. It involves taking notes and recording such things as voices and sounds as well as observation of images and behaviors. The study participants were girls and women and they selected randomly. Those who had started playing the game a week before the study were excluded from the study.


Observation, Analysis and Findings


The research involved visiting locations that League of Legends is mostly popular. The data was collected through observation of participants playing the games and interviewing some of the participants. The main focus was on how playing the game of league of legend influenced the respondents’ social behavior? The following survey has been developed to obtain results:

  1. Are you addicted to the League of Legends?
    Yes/No
  2. Are you inspired with the female characters in the game?
    Yes/No*
    *If not, what characters from real life inspire you the most?
  3. How do you consider the outfits of the female characters in the game? Positively/Negatively (*Add detailed comments please)
  4. Would you dress like the characters in the game or imitate some features of their style in real life?
    Yes/No/Maybe* (*Please explain in detail)
  5. Is your perception of gender roles challenged by the female characters in the game?
    Yes/No
    The following findings were obtained about the game. The league is a multiplayer game that fall in the category of violence games commonly referred to Multi Online Battle Arena (MOBA) (Giant Bomb). The League of Legends has a total of thirty characters in the games with approximately 13 female characters. The physical representation of female characters is more seductive, charming, highly sexualized and innocent.
    The interview conducted and data collected from the participants were analyzed and findings were obtained. First, among the participants interviewed, 70% responded that they were addicted to the League of Legends game. About 69% of participants reported that they were inspired with the female characters in the game. When a question on how they considered the outfits of the female characters in the game, 51% reported that the outfits were “cool”. Another 34% reported that they would love to dress the same; however, they were afraid of being negatively judged by the society. Most girls reported that their perception of gender roles had been challenged by the female characters in the game.
    Discussion
    The game League of Legends is a game that unlike traditional combat games also includes female characters in the fight. The female characters are given considerably same abilities and skills as their male counterparts. From the findings, it can be noted that the game of League of Legends has a great influence on gender identity. Most women have borrowed from the dressing styles of some of their favorite female characters in the play (Cassell and Jenkins). Pink lipsticks were easily observed in some women and girls who were regular players of the game. This shows that women and girls’ social behavior is learned from the everyday experiences they have within the society. The women and girls who played the game were willing to take part in traditionally male perceived gender roles (Jenson and Castel). This study is a confirmation that women and girls are greatly influenced by the video games. Girls and women tend to behave only within the limits that society has allowed. This is brought out in the representation of female characters in the League of Legends that tend to give females equality and power as males but, on the other hand, retains the stereotypic view of women as sex objects.
    Conclusion
    Female characters in video games have greatly influenced girls and women’s social behavior. Digital games have become critical tool for social construction of gender identity in modern society. League of Legends is a case in point that has included female characters with almost equal abilities as their male counterparts. However, the game has had a considerably great influence on the social behavior in women and girls. With these conclusions, the paper provides a number of recommendations. First, digital gaming industry should employ more feminists and women to develop games that give a reflection of the real position of the female gender in the society. Secondly, better policies and guidelines should be developed that govern digital gaming industry on how both the male and female characters are constructed in relation to gender equality. Third, there is need for digital gaming industry to use a non-biased gender lens to come up with games that positively influenced social behavior of women and girls. Finally, more research in the area of gender identity and video games is recommended to shed more light on the influence of video games in the social construction of gender identity.

UAE Economic and Social Strategic Position

Summary


The UAE through its efforts developed several strategies to support its overall economic and social position and vary its national income based on a maintainable and knowledge-based economy.
The Report provides an overview of UAE Global strategic outlook in conformance with vision 2030 that seeks adapt to the millennium development goals. Based on the strategic review, UAE has developed various strategies that seek to make the country a global hub that is at par with the industrialized world.
The UAE 2030 Strategy has focused on eight key sectors one of which fostering development within as well as between the security establishment, industry, and academic institutions through formal mechanisms positioned strategically in order to have connections at multiple layers.

Key Judgments


Based on global strategic outlook of UAE, it can be judged that;

  1. The UAE’s global strategic outlook for 2030 seeks to build a knowledge-based economy that is not reliant on oil reserves as its key source of revenue for GDP economy.
  2. The UAE’s global strategy for 2030 seeks to develop an open and integrated economy capable of attracting investors from across the globe.
  3. UAE has embarked on implementing its global strategies towards realizing vision 2030.
  4. By implementing Dubai Autonomous Transportation Strategy, the government seeks to achieve production efficiencies through reduction in wasted time in traffic congestion besides reducing the number of deaths attributed to road accidents.
  5. Production of defence vehicles and equipment’s that compete internationally.

Invasion of the Land by Plants

Questions

Why was the evolution of a vascular system critical to the invasion of the land by plants? What were the first plants to make the transition, and what were their characteristics?


Plants evolved in various ways and got various adaptations which assisted them to cope with various problems on dry land. One of the most essential adaptation was the evolution of vascular tissues which carry water as well as minerals to the leaves of the plant (Peng Xu 7). The development of the vascular system also helped in giving the plants an increased stature. The mechanical support given to the plant by the vascular system is critical in the ability of the plant to survive on land. Some of the oldest plants to develop a vascular system was the Cooksnia plant. This plant had stems that were forked into two. They did not have leaves. The algae also were some of the earliest plants to make the transition. Algae have a spore case known as sporangia. These characteristics helped them to adapt to their environment.
How might a paleontologist determine whether a fossil lower jaw containing teeth belonged to a mammal rather than a reptile?


A paleontologist studies the records of life which have been left as fossils. A paleontologist is able to differentiate the fossil lower jaw of a mammal from that of a reptile by observing the arrangement of the teeth. For instance, mammals have teeth which vary greatly in shape and size while reptiles have teeth which are more or less uniform in shape and size. Besides, in reptiles, the lower jaw has various different bones which are connected on the skull bone as well as the angular bone of the jaw. This is different in mammals as the lower jaw has only one bone and it hinges to the quadrate of the skull. By observing these characteristics, it is possible for the paleontologist to determine whether a fossil lower jaw containing teeth belonged to a mammal or reptile.

Professional and Ethical Dilemmas

Paper instructions:
Assignment 16


Choose a major topic within the text and thoroughly research the topic. Using your opinion and experiences, develop a new extended concept on the selected topic. The selected topic is “Professional and Ethical Dilemmas.” Must have considerable research to provide a different conceptual position. The development of this topic should include a chronological discussion of the topic evolution and provide the rationale for the extension of the new theories you wish to extend.

The paper should have hypotheses that can be qualitatively defined and suggested quantitatively support. Your articles selections must be presented with bibliographic details and support your theoretical proposal. You should be utilizing the internet or library system, and any outside source available.
The topic selected: Professional and Ethical Dilemmas

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The UAE’s Global Strategic Outlook

Summary


The UAE through its efforts developed several strategies to support its overall economic and social position and vary its national income based on a maintainable and knowledge-based economy.
The Report provides an overview of UAE Global strategic outlook in conformance with vision 2030 that seeks adapt to the millennium development goals. Based on the strategic review, UAE has developed various strategies that seek to make the country a global hub that is at par with the industrialized world.


The UAE 2030 Strategy has focused on eight key sectors one of which fostering development within as well as between the security establishment, industry, and academic institutions through formal mechanisms positioned strategically in order to have connexions at multiple layers.

Key Judgments


Based on global strategic outlook of UAE, it can be judged that;

  1. The UAE’s global strategic outlook for 2030 seeks to build a knowledge-based economy that is not reliant on oil reserves as its key source of revenue for GDP economy.
  2. The UAE’s global strategy for 2030 seeks to develop an open and integrated economy capable of attracting investors from across the globe.
  3. UAE has embarked on implementing its global strategies towards realizing vision 2030.
  4. By implementing Dubai Autonomous Transportation Strategy, the government seeks to achieve production efficiencies through reduction in wasted time in traffic congestion besides reducing the number of deaths attributed to road accidents.
  5. Production of defense vehicles and equipment’s that compete internationally.

Evolution of Plants

Why was the evolution of a vascular system critical to the invasion of the land by plants? What were the first plants to make the transition, and what were their characteristics?


Plants evolved in various ways and got various adaptations which assisted them to cope with various problems on dry land. One of the most essential adaptation was the evolution of vascular tissues which carry water as well as minerals to the leaves of the plant (Peng Xu 7). The development of the vascular system also helped in giving the plants an increased stature. The mechanical support given to the plant by the vascular system is critical in the ability of the plant to survive on land.

Some of the oldest plants to develop a vascular system was the Cooksnia plant. This plant had stems that were forked into two. They did not have leaves. The algae also were some of the earliest plants to make the transition. Algae have a spore case known as sporangia. These characteristics helped them to adapt to their environment.
How might a paleontologist determine whether a fossil lower jaw containing teeth belonged to a mammal rather than a reptile?


A paleontologist studies the records of life which have been left as fossils. A paleontologist is able to differentiate the fossil lower jaw of a mammal from that of a reptile by observing the arrangement of the teeth. For instance, mammals have teeth which vary greatly in shape and size while reptiles have teeth which are more or less uniform in shape and size.

Besides, in reptiles, the lower jaw has various different bones which are connected on the skull bone as well as the angular bone of the jaw. This is different in mammals as the lower jaw has only one bone and it hinges to the quadrate of the skull. By observing these characteristics, it is possible for the paleontologist to determine whether a fossil lower jaw containing teeth belonged to a mammal or reptile.

Intro to Film Studies – Cinematography

Cinematography: Writing in movement
1. Photographic aspect of the shot
2. Framing of the shot
3. Duration of the shot

PHOTOGRAPHIC ASPECT OF THE THE SHOT

Range of tonality
    Film Stock: fast/slow-contrast
    Lighting
    Aperture
    Post-production (chemicals /digitally)
    Tinting and Toning

Speed of Motion
Inversely proportional (24fps)
The flicker effect

Perspective:
The perception of information about scale, depth, and spatial relations among parts of the scene

The lens and the eye

Focal length: the distance from the center of the lens to the point where light rays converge to a point of focus on the film.

Short (wide angle) less than 35mm
    Distort edges, exaggerates distances, deep depth of field
Middle (Normal) 50 mm
    Close to the human eye
Long (Telephoto) above 75mm
    Flattens distances, shallow depth of field
    Rack/Differential Focus

Depth of Field/Deep Space

Job Cost Control

Project Instructions

  1. This is a class group project. You are expected to work in groups of no more than two students.
  2. The project is worth 20% of your final course grade and is due on the day of your final exam. There is no presentation required for this project.
  3. The Project consists of two (2) parts:
    A. Completing the JCC: (70% of your Project Grade)
    The JCC Sheet is stored in BBLearn and it is an excel sheet that allows you to enter the data necessary to complete this project. Here is what you need to do:
    a. You need to pick a project that you are to complete for a client. It could be a design project, supervision project, etc. as long as there will be staff working on it.
    b. As the owner of the company doing the project for the client, you need to figure out the total cost for completing the project by utilizing the JCC. You will list the staff working on the project along with their hourly rates and come up with the cost of employing these staff.
    c. You will also determine the cost associated with the employment of a subcontractor(s) and other disbursements costs to come up with your total cost.
    d. You will then propose a fee to be charged to your client so that a profit between 22% and about 26% results and earned.
    e. Finally, you are to write a report as per the specifications below.
    B. Completing the Report: (15% of your Project Grade)

a. At least two (2) pages of summary of your report is to accompany the JCC sheet.
b. The summary should explain clearly the methodology you used in completing the JCC. You should, for example, define/describe the project you will complete for your client, describe your business (company), describe your staff and the types of costs you will incur by doing the job for your client, and any assumptions you made while completing the JCC.