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Monthly Archives: November 2017

Management of visitor attraction

The current report presents a discussion on the visitor attraction sites focusing on their importance and impacts on the economy. A description of the various types of visitors and their motives to tour the various destinations is also presented. Further, the report looks at motivation theories and how they influence the visitor management process. An analysis of the various management strategies adopted by the management and their effectiveness attaining sustainability is also presented.
Task 1: Tourist attractions site
Description of the toured sites
Tourism contributes significantly towards the growth and development of an economy. Whether local or domestic, tourists are visits attraction sites or destinations for leisure purposes or with an objective of acquiring more knowledge and experience on certain historical events. London has many tourists attraction sites that offer an opportunity for tourists to learn more about historical events and natural occurrences. Natural history museum and science museum are historical sites that contain a variety of specimen for natural history. The natural history museum contains more 80 million specimens from the collection of botany, zoology, paleontology, mineralogy, and entomology. The museum is considered one of the renowned centers for research with specialization in identification and conservation of historical specimen. Since the museum was initiated in the early ages, most of the collections are of significant scientific and historical value, thus the higher number of tourists that they attract.
On the other hand, Science Museum is an exhibition that mainly contains art collections. The museum was established in the year 1987 and currently hosts more than 300000 items including jet engines, the earliest steam engine, and interactive exhibits. Recent development has seen the museum host a 3D cinema that shows nature and science documentaries.
Hyde Park is one of the major parks in Central London that has been expanded into a destination hosting other tourists’ attraction sites. The park forms a chain from the entrance of the Kensington Palace through to the Kensington Gardens. The Kensington garden is regarded as an extent of the Hyde Park that offers maximum private while Hyde Park is believed to be more fashionable due to its accessibility. Tourists visiting the KensingtonPalace, a royal residence that displays many objects and paintings from the royal collection have a chance to experience the cool weather and natural view of the two gardens.
Overlap of visitor attractions
The identified tourists’ attraction sites promise much leisure and learning to local tourists in London. From the art and object exhibition to the scientific specimen as well as the royal collection, one is not only able to learn of the historical specimens but also understand their evolution over the years. A visit to the various tourist attraction sites in London indicates that most of them overlap to form a destination that offers more than one experience to the tourists. According to Benur and Bramwell (2015, p. 254) destinations are mostly preferred by local tourists since one can have more than one experience in one location. As much as the single unit tourists’ attraction sites also offer a unique experience and knowledge to the tourists, better satisfaction is attained when one visits a given destination.
The classification of tourist attraction sites is done based on variables of ownership or scale. Under ownership, a tourist attraction site can be classified as public, private or voluntary ownership. Most of the tourists’ attraction sites are publicly owned, giving an opportunity for all the local tourists, regardless of the level of income, to visit the sites. In London for instance, most of the tourist’s attraction sites charge a small fee thus attract a large number of tourists. As such, higher revenues are likely to be realized. Destinations that target local tourist must, therefore, be made accessible to everyone to achieve a higher economic value.
Tourists’ attraction sites can also be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary attraction sites are that area that forms the main reasons why a tourist will visit the location. On the other hand, secondary sites are those that are visited on the way either to or from the primary sites. Science museum, Natural history museum and Kensington Palace are considered primary attraction sites. While Kensington garden and Hyde Park are considered secondary attraction sites. The former offers an opportunity for one to view, and understand the evolution of the historical specimen, objects, and artifacts, while the later break the long journey and gives the journey some variations. The secondary sites also give an opportunity for the tourists to have some private time, drink and eat, and relax. According to Bond, Packer, and Ballantyne (2015, p. 471), more visitors are likely to visit destinations that host both secondary and primary tourists attraction sites. As such, the overlap of tourist attraction to form a destination as observed in the case of Kensington palace is likely to attract more customers. Indeed, there were more tourists at the park that was evident in the Science and national history museum. Overlapping of tourists’ attraction sites is therefore effective in attracting more local tourists that translate into a higher economic value.
The importance of different visitor attraction
Tourists’ attraction sites are split into four main types. Those that host features from the natural environment, human-made buildings and equipment designed to attract tourists, man-made buildings and objects that were initially built for certain purposes but have since been converted into an exhibition, and special events (Smith, 2014, p. 15). All the types of attraction sites are important to the economy and the visitors. Publicly owned attraction sites are important since they support the conservation of the historical specimen and objects and educate the public on the same. Also, increased leisure is availed for the local visitor as well as the management. Privately owned tourists attraction sites are important to the owners since it promises the attainment of profit (Bond, Packer, and Ballantyne (2015, p. 476). Moreover, the attraction sites entertain the visitors. As such, the museums, galleries, parks and historical buildings in London are essential in assuring conservation of the historical objects, educating the public, and offering increased leisure to the visitors in the various sites.

Task 2
Needs and motivation of tourists
Visitor types are classified based on the goal for visiting an attraction site. Two major types of visitors exist that is event and culture tourists. Event tourists refer to visitors who visit destinations that mainly host cultural events or sporting activities that are meant for leisure. On the other hand, culture tourists have been divided into purposeful, incidental, casual, sightseeing and serendipitous cultural tourists. The motives of the visitors to any destination vary depending on the type of visitor involved.
The motive of event tourists is to have an experience of the event through the participation of viewing. In most cases, events visitors undertake the travel for leisure. Purposeful cultural tourists are motivated to learn about the culture of other communities. As such, they travel the world with the aim of attaining a deep cultural experience (Barkhordari, Yusof, and Geok, 2014, p. 12). Sightseeing cultural visitors visit a destination with a motive of learning the culture of an organization, though they sought for a shallow entertainment experience. The casual cultural tourists are motivated by the need to have a shallow experience of the destination’s culture. The incidental cultural tourists’ plays do not consider cultural experience as a vital factor to influence their decision in choosing a destination (Pearce, 2014, p. 50). However, during the visit, they participate in the cultural activities to gain a shallow experience of the culture. Serendipitous cultural tourists are characterized with a low centrality and deep experience. As such, culture plays a minimal role in influencing their decision, while in the destination; they visit culture attraction to gain a deep experience of the culture. The motive of visitors traveling to various destinations is either to gain a shallow or a deep experience of the culture while at the destination. The figure below gives an illustration of the different level of experience and the significance of culture in deciding on the destination to visit.

Impacts of tourists on visitor attractions
Environmental impacts
Tourism has had negative and positive implications on the environment. Destruction of the environment through soil erosion, litter, and disturbance of livestock is one of the major negative impacts of tourism on the environment. Tourism also has negative implications for the ecosystem. The increase in waste levels following the stay of tourists in various destinations in the UK is one of the disadvantages (Tang and Abosedra, 2014, p. 450). Despite the negative implications of tourism activities on the environment, the UK has reported a significant increase in its waste management even in the presence of many tourists. In fact, it is observed that the tourists’ areas in London are tidier than the town outskirts. The approach undertaken during the 2013 Olympic Games ensured that the regions disclosed as tourists’ attraction sites maintained a higher level of cleanliness than the other parts of the town. Tourism activities may have negative impacts on the environment; nevertheless the tourists’ activities in the area have to some extent addressed the issues of waste management and cleanliness in the United Kingdom.
Economic impacts
Tourism contributes towards the growth and development of the UK economy. In the UK, some of the positive economic impacts of tourism include the creation of employment to the citizens (Cárdenas-García, Sánchez-Rivero, and Pulido-Fernández, 2015, p. 220). Tourism also enhanced the development of infrastructure, for instance, roads and stadium. The nation has also benefited through tourists’ expenditure, for instance, the expenditure rose to a higher level of more than $56 million that were all translated in building the economy of the region.
Nevertheless, there are some negative economic impacts of tourism that have been reported in the UK. Inflation of prices in cities that reports a high influx of tourism has been reported in the region. Moreover, a company that mainly offers services to the tourists normally closes down during off-peak seasons leading to loss of some jobs (Loureiro, 2014, p. 8). As much as there are negative implications of tourism activities in the UK, the perceived economic value of tourism remains higher, thus considered a major contributor towards the growth and development of the economy.
Socio-cultural impacts
The positive impact of tourism in the UK is the creation of a diverse nation consisting of people from different religion and cultures. By traveling to the various attractions in the UK, people are not only able to experience leisure but are equally focussed on gaining a deep experience with the culture in the area. Similarly, interactions between the tourists from different regions promote the sharing of other cultures (Kim, Uysal and Sirgy, 2013, p. 530). Today, the country hosts more than 200 nationalities speaking different languages and, exhibiting distinct religion and cultural beliefs. Tourism has also promoted the conservation of the local traditions and cultures of the aboriginals in the United Kingdom.
Despite the positive social impacts, certain negative social implications have been brought about by the tourists’ activities. Ethnic diversity to some extent is beneficial; nevertheless, it can lead to increased cases of conflicts between nations. Exclusion is also likely to be evident with individuals from a similar nationality choosing to live in a designated region. A high level of discrimination is also observed with the locals feeling left out in the national decisions of the country. The United Kingdom has therefore reported both negative and positive implications of the tourists’ activities in the region.
Theories of tourists’ motivation on the management of visitor attraction
Different scholars have tackled the theories the issue of tourist’s motivational theory, According to Streimikiene & Bilan (2015), the theories are essential in guiding the management understand the needs of and nature of different tourists to offer better services. Some of the theories include
Pull and push motivational theory
The push and pull motivational theory was first introduced in the year 1959 to explain what makes the tourists travel to the various destination. The theory is based on the assumption that there are internal desires that push the tourists as well as external desires that pull an individual to decide between traveling to a given destination. The internal forces that push the tourists to travel refer to the motives that drive one away from home. The external pull factors are the motives that drive an individual towards the destination. According to Kirkup and Sutherland (2017, p. 14), the push factors that encourage one to travel are mainly socio-psychological needs, such as social interaction, relaxation, meeting with friends, increasing knowledge and stress and fitness. Pull factors denotes the motivation emerging from the attractiveness of the destinations. The pull factors resources such as cultural attraction, recreation, beaches, good facilities that pull one to visit the destination. In essence, the pull factors are the perceived expectation of the tourists from the attraction sites.
The pull and push theory can be used in the management of tourism activities. According to Streimikiene & Bilan (2015, p. 35), the theory explains the behavior and patterns of travel. In essence, the elements of push and pull represent the main elements of supply and demand. The push factors are intrinsic motives, thus represents the demand side. The pull side is the benefits sought from a destination thus represent the demand side. Thus understanding the push and pull factors enable the management to know the needs of the tourists and how they want them to be fulfilled, hence assisting the management to achieve some degree of tourism satisfaction.
Crompton’s theory
Crompton theory asserts that traveling motives are conceptualized as an influence by the socio-cultural needs of an individual. As much as the needs may not be expressed explicitly, the theory argues that people travel to escape from a mundane environment, to relax, for exploration, for social interaction, to regress or to for the enhancement of relationships (Kirkup and Sutherland (2017, p. 21). The theory is based on the assumption that before one decides to travel, there is disequilibrium of the socio-cultural needs. After traveling, the tourists expect that equilibrium of the needs will be achieved. As such, the management of the various destinations needs to understand the initial unsatisfied needs of tourists, to offer a quality experience that will assure the gratification of the said needs is accomplished.
Seeking/escaping theory
The theory holds that the two motives for traveling include the desire to get away from the normal way of living and the desire to acquire psychological benefits by traveling to a new environment. The escape-seeking forcing characterizes the tourists’ travel behavior. The seeking factors can either be personal or interpersonal, as such, one may be moving due to personal or family reasons (Kirkup and Sutherland (2017, p. 16). Escaping from personal problems or family issues is a specific example of the same. Similar seeking is also categorized into personal and interpersonal reason such as seeking for personal rewards (relaxing, resting) or seeking for interpersonal rewards (cultural experience). Understanding the escaping and seeking forces is essential to the management for them to offer a satisfactory experience to the tourists.

Task 3
Development process of a new attraction at Stratford London
The success rate of any tourist attraction is dependent on the number of tourists that it can attract. The impact of the tourists’ activities on the economy, society and the environment must be ascertained to justify the significance of the destination to the developers. Focussing on the current case of developing an attraction site in Stratford, issues of funding, suitability of the location, impacts on the society and the community must be taken into consideration.
Visitor projection
Stratford has currently a significant number of attractions that are already attracting tourists. The development of a new attraction site will lead to an overlap of the attractions to provide a tourists’ destination that will equally attract a relatively higher number of tourists. The number of individuals visiting the region is higher, such that an optimistic visitor projection of not less than 300000 people per month (Page, 2014, p. 30). With the current number of people being 295000, it is possible to attain the number, making the project viable.
The experience to offer in the attraction sites also determines its level of success. For instance, there are currently some parks in the reasons. Thus a destination offering a different experience will be more viable than those giving a replica of what is already in place. There is need to identify the gap in the content of the services and experience being offered to consider giving a unique experience that will attract more customers.
Poor location of an attraction site has been pointed out as the main factor contributing to the failure of the project. Apart from enhanced accessibility, the location must be centralized and tourists friendly to pull visitor into the region. Stratford is one of the top tourist attraction cities. It attracts a significant number of people on a monthly basis due to the different natural features and past events such as Olympics (Mariani, Buhalis, Longhi and Vitouladiti, 2014, p. 270). The road network in the area is also good, making the region more accessible. It is therefore likely that development in the region will further enhance the attractiveness of the city. However, the new attraction should focus more on providing cultural experience, since the city is yet to be renowned for its cultural fit. Developing a destination that will emphasize on the cultural experience will attract more tourists.
Project management
The issue relating to the construction and management of the attraction must be taken into consideration before commencing the project. Identification of the concerned stakeholders, the source of funding for the project and the top management is necessary for the project implementation process (Morrison, 2013, p. 21). Based on the nature and the possible viability of the project, potential donors can be acquired to offer the finances needed. In this case, the development process will begin with writing a proposal seeking funds from the particular done, to enhance the chances of acceptance. The proposal should include a justification of the project, its expected benefits, and the projected budget. The impacts of the project on the economy, the community, and the environment must be outlined.
Apart from the customers, the donors and the staff working within the attraction site, any other interested party should be included as a stakeholder. The role of the stakeholder in the initial stages of the project, will just to contribute towards the decision making process. Financial benefits will crop in at the early stages of project development, definitely after a significant stability has been achieved.
To ensure proper management of the attraction sites, careful selection and recruitment process should be adopted that only allows for qualified and competent persons to take up the management role (Bunakov, 2015, p. 49). Also, the quality of customer services will be dependent on the qualification and experience of the staff. Further training is recommended to ensure quality services are received from the employees.
Carrying out a proper feasibility study followed by the availability of adequate resources for the project implementation, and a strong workforce for management of the site will guarantee the attainment of success from the proposed visitor attraction site.

Task 4
4.1 Analysis of visitor management strategies
The management strategies are adopted to maximize experience while minimizing the negative implications of tourists’ activities. Some of the management strategies that can be employed include retention of visitor spending, enhancing access to the facility, education, and training on how to use the facility.
Retention of visitor spending is a strategy that when employed can lead to development and growth of the destination location. The management can adopt the strategy by involving local supplies for various services to ensure that the money received from the tourists is circulated within a confined location. Waligo, Clarke, and Hawkins (2013, p. 340) have pointed out that retention of the finances promotes the development of infrastructure and other facilities outside the attraction site, thus making the area more attractive. Also, enhanced accessibility of the region is likely to be observed, that will make it attract visitors. Through retention of the finances within the same locality, there is a surety that a higher number of visitors will be attracted to the attraction site.
Enhancing the accessibility of the facility has significant economic benefits to the site owner. Allowing all people to visit the attraction, by charging an affordable fee is essential in improving the number of people and consequently the amount of revenue that can be collected. The strategy is effective in ensuring that profitability is achieved by the provision of the recreational and entertainment services to the public.
Education and training the visitors and the public on tourism and its benefits is also essential in maximizing the use and positive impacts of tourism. Educating the public ensures that they are conversant with the importance of the attraction site thus will refrain from vandalism. Also, the public is likely to interact freely with the visitors giving them a warm welcome that will prompt them to make future visits (Edgell Sr, 2016, p. 13). Similarly, educating the visitors on the desired behaviour to adopt during their stay in the destination will ensure that they do not engage in any form of destruction, especially of the attraction is dealing with living creatures. Educating the tourists and the public minimizes the possible losses that can be incurred by the attraction owners thus contributing to the attainment of higher profits.
4.2 Evaluate management techniques about sustainability.
While most management techniques focus on enhancing the use of the attraction sites and the attainment of their positive impacts, certain strategies ensure sustainability is achieved. Sustainability is possible when there is conservation of the living creatures and the environment. Moreover, sustainability is attained when there is a maximum protection of the historical sites and specimen so that they are continually available for view (Gössling et al., 2016, p. 340). Education is one of the most effective strategies for ensuring that sustainability regarding protection of the living creatures in the attraction site is attained. Education is mainly provided to inform the users on the importance of reducing the use of the protected areas as well as the significance of off-trail travel. These approaches reduced the possible destruction that would have occurred in those areas. Training on proper behavior to adopt when handling the specimen and any other historical objects also minimize the probable destructions that may be observed. Graci (2013, p. 40) has also pointed out that education gives the tourists and the locals an understanding of the importance of the wild creatures and historical objects such that they responsibly interact with them during their destination.
Restricting access to the wilderness and protected destination sites is another strategy that is likely to support the attainment of sustainability. As such as it may be assumed that people will take responsibility after the training process, it is possible that some destruction will be observed if further restrictions are not put in place (Gössling et al., 2016, p. 341). For instance, limiting the length of stay in those areas and charging a differential fee are some of the approaches that can be adapted to limit access to the protected areas. Minimal destructions will be observed thus enhancing the sustainability of the attraction service.
Engaging in community-based projects is a strategy that can be employed to achieve environmental sustainability. For instance, museums can consider making an overlap tourist destination that does not only focus on offering historical experiences but also open up into a recreational facility mainly in the form of a park or any other natural feature. Conservation of the environment, through the development of a park with green vegetation, does not only offer additional benefits to the tourists but also contributes towards enhancing the environmental impact of the attraction sites (Graci, 2013, p. 39). Proper management of wastes generated during the visits of any tourists’ attraction event is also essential in ensuring that negative implication of the tourists’ activities on the environment is minimized. Training and education, involvement in community development projects, restricting access to the attraction sites and effective waste management are strategies that when employed will assure the sustainability of both the tourist’s attraction sites and the environment case study

Case Study: Sustainable Competitive Advantage
The intense contest observed in the current business environment requires organizations maintain a higher competitive advantage in their operations. Notably, enhanced company growth, profitability and overall higher performance are likely to be reported in companies that are capable of maintaining higher operational standards (Kozlenkova, Samaha&Palmatier2014). Different theories have been put forth to determine the level of success of a given business entity. Certainly, it is important to focus on the application of resource-based view (RBV) theory in evaluating the market level market dominance of an organization. A case of analyzed to determine whether and how organizationmanaged to maintain a sustainable growth in the industry.
The resource-based view (RBV) approach is considered more feasible in evaluating the level of performance of an organization. According to Lin and Wu (2014) the RBV theory illustrates that the external opportunities presented to an organization can be exploited using the existing internal resources to achieve a higher competitive advantage. (Lin 201) asserts that resources and capabilities refer to the human, physical, financial and organizational assets that can enable the company to gain market dominance. Therefore, to attain higher success rate than others, the corporate’s approach must be valuable, rare, costly and difficult to imitate.
Although the RBV model is more feasible in evaluating the competitive advantage of the firm as it cannot function in isolation. According to Schilke (2014) the capacity of the resources and capabilities to attain market dominance is analyzed based on their contribution towards the exploitation of the various opportunities, threats, and the organization’s weaknesses. Furthermore, value in the model is used to determine whether the efforts of an organization are valuable enough to support the exploitation of the opportunities presented to the firm. For instance, the transformations in the industry and customer preference may also render a valuable resource useless (Ketokivi, 2016). Nevertheless, if an organization has ways of improving its traditional resources to adapt to the changing environment, the resource will retain the same if not a higher value. Thus, for an asset to be considered the source of a sustainable competitive advantage, it must enablethe organization to exploit the various profit making chances or suppress the threats that it may face. Additionally, the approach must be costly and difficult to imitate such that it cannot be adopted easily by the competitors (Ketokivi 2016). In addition, the system mechanization of the company should be organized to capture its overall vision. In such away, valuable, rare, and imitable resources are likely to support the company to higher operational efficiency and attain profitability.
Zappos.Com is an online based shoe and clothing shop that sells and distributes shoes and clothes to various consumers in the U.S. The organization is ranked as one of the largest online retailers in themarket after it attained a higher profitability fromthe online selling of shoes. The company has initiated strategies focused on facilitating it accomplish the desired sustainable competitive advantage. A loyal customer base is one of the resources heavily exploited by the company to achieve sustainability. It is evident that the repeat customer for the company increased from 40% to 75% indicating that many consumers were satisfied with the products of the company (Lin 2011). Notably, the large number of clients was a valuable asset to the organization as it contributed significantly towards the growth of the company. In addition,achieving such high percent of trust in an online business platform is a difficulty process .It requires a strong commitment from the management to ensure that clients are always pleased.Additionally, having satisfied customers is the overall vision of the organization (Lev 2017). has, therefore, used a loyal customer base to attain a sustainable competitive advantage in the industry.
Further,’s strong culture is another source of its sustainable competitive advantage. The management of the company developed and nurtured a culture that incorporates the company’s values and has a strong influence on all aspects of the business ranging from production process to the supply chain management system. In this case, it is notable that company’s culturefocuses on new approaches to ensure customersatisfaction. Moreover, the the organization is also determined to build good relationships within the workplace such that its employees work as a single family (Lin 2011). It is observed that the management encouragedteamwork and supported both professional and personal growth of its employees.The strong Zippos culture is not only valuable but rare in the industry. Most business entities focus on achieving higher profits regardless of the relationships observed in the workplace. According to Ketokivi (2016), customer satisfaction is not merely achievable in every business entity; rather a high level of managerial commitment is required to achieve such a culture .The strong organizational cultureembraced and nurtured by the top leadership of, therefore, contributed towards the attainment of a higher competitive advantage.
Operating as an online shop has also contributed towards the attainment of a higher competitive advantage in the industry. Previously, before adopting online marketing techniques, the organization used to make relatively low revenues. The increased usage of the technology for business purposes has enhanced the number of consumers who would wish to buy using the internet. Notably, developed a company website that allows consumers to make orders conveniently. In particular, the website allows the use ofphotos to display the company’s shoes and clothes (Lin 2011). In this case, customers are given an opportunity to choose from wide range of colors, design, and quality of products based on the items presented. The consumers also have an opportunity to give feedback concerning their experience with the services and products offered by the organization. The unique platform has also enabled Zippos. Com to install a 24hr call center that manages the ordering process and responds to the feedback presents by the customers. Thus, by using technology, the company is able to gain market dominance.
Online stores are more valuable than physical ones. Apart from ease of accessibility, they can reach many clients without necessarily opening many stores across a country. The strategies adopted by in managing its client’s feedback and inquiries ensure that the customers are always satisfied with the services. In such way, the company is able to gain more profit due to the broad customer base. With the current advancement in technology, more business is likely to adopt the online shop strategy. Nevertheless, the management process of such business requires a higher level of commitment, experience, and expertise (Paladino, Widing&Whitwell, 2015). Furthermore, the issueof delayed or poor delivery servicescan adversely affect the performance level of a business. As indicated in the case, has taken an initiative of developing a higher level of trust with its customers. In addition to free delivery service, the organization also implemented the fit and return policy where customers can receive replacement for commodities that do not satisfy their requirements. The result of this is a highly satisfied customer, thus, contributing to more customer loyalty. Therefore, the technology enhancesthe dominance of the organization and further markets its products to many consumers, hence, contributing to the attainment of a sustainable development.
The financial success attained by also contributed to its competitive advantage. reported a strong growth in sales from the year 2006 to 2008. The higher financial performance has been attributed to the happy loyal customers that the company had. Also, the high financial performance of the company is also due to the unique and effective strategies that it implements in its business operations. Profitability is a valuable and rare resource to an organization. It allows for execution of different activities within the organization most of which leads to further growth and development of the company. For instance, was able to invest in a rapid delivery system due to its financial stability. The fact that the high profitability is difficult to attain, and most organizations are still struggling to do so, means that the company will receive a higher competitive advantage as a result of its higher financial performance. As such, the increasing profitability that is reported by the company has therefore enabled it to attain a higher competitive advantage.
Overall, resources and capabilities are vital sources of its competitive advantage in the market. Thus, developing a strong culture, creating a loyal customer base, andestablishing an online shop are some of thestrong aspects exhibited, which has enhanced its development in the industry. In this case, devoted clients enable the company to register repeat purchases,which contributes significantly towards the growth and profitability of the organization. Moreover, the broad customer base is likely to provide positive feedback, therefore, furtherenhancing the marketing of its services and products of Additionally, online presence enables the organization to be more accessible and attract more customers. Notably,due to the convenience involved, many people are likely to make online purchases. The identified three resources and capabilities of arevaluable and difficult to imitate, thus, making them the main contributors tothe sustainable competitive nature of the company as elaborated in the case.

Article Critique: Perceptions of European Independent Hoteliers: Hard and Soft Branding Choices.

The hospitality industry is one of the fastest growing industries globally. With the continued increase in the appreciation of both international and local tourism there is a forecast of a faster future growth. Research points to brand positioning as one of the greatest tools to achieving this competitive advantage (O’Neill & Mattila, 2010). In this regard, Halverson and Revez (2006) in their research article, sought to build into this research gap. The current paper, thus, seeks to understand the international trends of research in the global tourism and hospitality industries through a critical review of this research article. It begins by critiquing the article’s introduction, research questions, methodology, findings, conclusions and implications. It then provides author’s personal reflection and ends in a concluding summary of the main points.

Research literature defines a good introduction as one that begins by explaining the relevance and worthiness of the study in a non-expert friendly manner followed by a section that reviews and presents conclusions of past relevant researches to inform the research gap and the rationale of present study (Yang, Wang & Su, 2006: Bowling, 2009). A good introduction then concludes in justifying the employed methodology and summarizing the key findings of the paper (Bowling, 2009). The author of this paper succeeds in painting a clear picture of the problem stating that the European hotel industry is a highly competitive one that needs branding. The choice of past relevant studies to inform the current work is good and informative. However, the author fails to include two fundamental elements of an introduction: a justified outline of the methodology. Instead they concentrate on defining terms which would also be defined within the text. Moreover, nothing about the findings of the study is mentioned therein. Although informative, therefore, this introduction has lackings that have to be addressed if it has to be a standard academic introduction.

This research was based on two research questions: what should independent small independent hotels consider before committing to hard or soft brands? And, does this branding improve their overall performance? Interesting to note is the manner with which the authors explore literature to inform the choice of these two questions. The authors proceeded to filling the gap that is considerations to be taken into account hoteliers while deciding. As Yang et al (2006) posit every research questions have to be informed by an existing gap and value of the gap to practice.  

This research followed an exploratory design of qualitative research methodology. A purposive sample of 29 hotels across Europe was taken with 17 and 12 being soft and hard branded respectively. The use of closed questioned questionnaires raises validity questions to the methodology. Being a qualitative research, using multiple choice or closed questions is absolutely invalid (Yang, Wang & Su, 2006). No research has ever generated perceptions through the use of closed questions (Kim & Kim, 2005). The research should have included interviews even in a limited scope in the probable consideration of cost. This implies that the researchers involved in this research lacked sufficient knowledge of research method and were confused about qualitative research and quantitative research. As Bowling (2009) puts it, no research data has ever been considered informal. In lieu of this, the research methodology applied lacks the capacity to conclusively answer the posted research questions and thus meet the purpose of this research.

In their secondary research methodology, the exploration of literature focused too much on the branding theory that it failed to note other important marketing theories. The hierarchy of effects theory and leisure motivation theories are two vital theories whose inclusion in this work would provide a great contribution to performance attachment to branding. Moreover, to understand whether the matter was uniform throughout Europe or different, the consumer market segmentation theory could have been employed, studying each segmented potion as distinct (Kapferer, 2012). This would have expanded the scope of the study.

Although this research provides important insights on reasons for branding choices and decision making criteria for branding, the validity and reliability of these results is in question. First, the methods used within this research had great limitations as aforementioned. In addition, the researcher’s distribution of questionnaires might have resulted to the filling of the questionnaires by the unintended. Surprisingly, the findings of this research are supported by previous literature. Wang, Chen & Chen  (2012) while studying the reasons for increased branding in Europe found that reputation and access to international deals were leading reasons. This is in line with the institutional theory of marketing that suggests that organizations will only venture after gaining sufficient knowledge of the venture (Pizam, 2008). However, this purported lack of knowledge is contrary to the game theory that suggests that firms are hyper rational and will always searching information to gain maximum profitability.

This study generated findings that suggest the factors that should be considered by hoteliers before committing to either soft or hard branding and decision making criteria for ensuring informed hoteliers’ decision making. However, the immense methodological limitations presented in the researchers render it unreliable.  Conversely, this researchers support the market share theory that relates profitability and performance to market share and scope meaning franchised or branded hotels are likely to perform as suggested here due to improved market share (Kimes, 2001). Nevertheless, the hoteliers need to shift focus from franchised branding to the theories of innovation and product/service quality that ensures more profitability (Hippel, 2010).

In the conclusion of the article, the authors outstandingly provide a summary of the major findings and theories of the article. Ideally, reading the conclusion of the paper gives a clear outline of purpose, findings and the overriding themes of the study. A connection of the findings with the entrepreneurial marketing strategy theory ensues, a very good way to conclude an academic work.

In my opinion, although the methodology of this research has limitations, it is a research presented in a logically readable and clear manner. The authors made clear the purpose of the study and sort to achieve it although with a limited understanding of research methodologies. The contribution of this study to literature is also considerate because the invalidity of results applies only to the primary research findings. Their secondary research reconciles great deal of literary information in European hotel industry that hoteliers may find greatly useful. However, the application of marketing theories seems to me limited and scanty. The methodological failure of this paper points to the greatly necessity of understanding methods of research before indulging in any research.

In conclusion this research begins with an explicit presentation of context and research questions. However, the methodology used renders the effects of the paper invalid, irrespective of the vast evident efforts of the researchers. Moreover, the small samples used derails generalization of the findings of this paper. Interesting to note is the fact that the paper presents a strong review of literature that truly informs the context of this paper. Although generally, the article is logically and readably presented, its contribution to hoteliers and the wider hospitality industry has been limited by the failed methodology.

Pearls before Swine: Puns and Language Analysis


Comics have recently experienced a surge of interest in the realms of linguistic scholarship. Scholars have posited the existent of a greatly intuitive association between comics and linguistics in both the minds of the readers and the creators of these comics (Chute, 2006). This scholarly position has stimulated the current discussion of the properties of comics in light of linguistics. However, to understand the position of comics and the linguistic realms, it is important to establish the exact comic elements to discuss (Laraudogoitia, 2008). This is because comics are not part of the regular inquiry scope for contemporary linguistics (not because comics are inappropriate themes of discussion, but for the reason that language is a human behavior while comics are not) (Lopes, 2006).

 In the linguistic sense, comics are objects of socialism that result from two behaviors of humans: drawing and writing (Laraudogoitia, 2008). In lieu of this, the deportment domain of visual language (drawing) and verbal/written language (writing) ought to be the centers of linguistic inquiry of comics. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the predomination of comics in the culture has spurned the appreciation of pairing visual graphics with verbal modalities in a way that greatly employ the theories of linguistics. Informed by this knowledge, the author of this paper explores the linguistic representation of themes in the comic strip, “Pearls before Swine,” by Stephan Pastis. Special emphasis is placed in the manner by which Pastis employs puns, not only to create humor but also to stress and make conspicuous the overarching language misinterpretation in contemporary culture. Moreover, the paper studies the extent to which this use of puns has change the representation of language in popular culture.

Research Questions

This research papers poses two questions to explore the employment of puns in the language of “Pearls before Swine” comic strip as a method of emphasizing themes other than its contemporary humor bias.

  1. How and to what extent does the comic strip, “Pearls before Swine” employ puns?
  2. To what extent do these puns represent the contemporary misinterpretation of language?


This research takes an exploratory design. Being a long strip that started in 2001 through to the present day, the researcher explored the strips and chose the most relevant strips for the exploration of puns. The aim was to study the linguistic perspective of puns and the appreciation of this perspective in the comics. As shown by research, comics often take linguistic paradigms and employ them both in writing and drawing (Cohn, 2010). In regard to this, the research also focused on the visual language of the comics in its identification of puns. A total of 16 panels of the strip were studied in this research.

For the purposes of this research two categories of puns were created. First are the verbal or written puns. These puns are defined as those expressed in writing within the text of the comics. Secondly, the visual puns which the researcher defines as puns that are visual presented. These puns, the author argues are those that refer to a verbal or written pun through drawing. However, the verbal/written category is illustrated in the context of the five types of puns (homophonic, homographic, homonymic, compound and recursive puns) (Heracleous, 2006). In play, there were also the other theories of linguistics including structural linguistics and systemic-functional linguistics theories (Naddeo, 2001).

A total of 16 panels of the strip were studied in this research. Each of the selected panels contained at least one direct or implied pun. However, the meaning, implication or contribution of the pun was not considered at this point. In the selection of the panels, care was taken so that most characters are presented although it was noted that the creator used specific characters in the expression of these puns. The puns were extracted and an analysis ensued employing a content analysis as the basic method (Bramlett, 2012). In the content analysis, puns remained the contents of focus though this analysis introduced new facets of the puns and related them to the other theories of linguistics.

Data Analysis and Discussion

This analysis is in the context of the content of the 16 chosen panels (appendix). Among the analyzed panels four had homophonic puns, two had recursive, three had homonymic puns and two had visual puns.  The remaining five panels were used to show misinterpretations informed by implied puns. This section will analyze the puns and their resulting misinterpretations  in the context of the linguistic theories.

First, the creator of the comic employs homophonic puns (appendix 1, 4, 6 and 15). In the first case (Appendix 1), pig presents his dilemma of attending either of the two folk music destinations whose abbreviations are N.O.W and N.E.F.F.A. While presenting the options he says, “It is NOW or NEFFA” this results into Goat misinterpreting it as, “it is now or never.” Of interest here is the influence that cultural background (in this context linguistic accent) affects language misinterpretation (Meyer, 2008). In this case, the misinterpretation that creates the pun is a result of poor articulatory and auditory phonetics (Rauh, 2010). Appendix 16 is also a depiction of the same with Goat telling Pig to, “take it as a given” which due to an accent problem, Pig hears as “Gibbon” followed by a virtual emphasis with which he takes the latter meaning. Research notes that comics employ the corruption of articulatory phonetics as influenced by an individual’s mother language to form new meanings of language elements. However, research shows that these corruptions often result in misinterpretations (Lillo, 2008). In appendix 4, the panel introduces four homophones that depict a great employment of structural linguistics. Starting from pigs request for a pen, comes Penn (name of an actor embedded on the pen), Penn (university of Pennsylvania). The presentation at the end of the panel in a rhyme with no meaning presents the misinterpretation that has resulted. Structural linguistics come in play in the form that (Naddeo, 2001) describes as the marrying of phonemes and morphemes to make a meaningful syntax as presented in the second last sentence of this panel.

 “Because that will be penultimate Penn ultimate ultimate Penn pen.”

Without the preceding explanation of the syntactical collection of these words it would obviously lack in semantics. However, because explanations are made prior to articulation, the misinterpretation that was looming large is obstructed. In fact, this clause would not actually have any meaning because as it stands it is grammatically inapt.

Appendix 5 reinforces the employment of wrong diction as a source of linguistic misinterpretation. While “account” would mean a description of events, the wrong contextual placement in the panel results in concurrent misinterpretations in the whole panel. A similar scenario is also well illustrated in appendix 6 where Rats advice that abalone diving will require a wet suit (a diving paraphernalia), Pig misinterprets this to mean a literally wet suit in an employment of both visual and homophonic pun. Research shows that there has been a growing trend where misinterpreted ones in comics and other humor oriented literature have often influenced the pop culture in a great deal (Duncan & Smith, 2009). In addition, it has been noted that most cases the words and phrases that comic creators use in invalid linguistic contexts also create new forms of language in the popular culture (Groensteen, 2009). Appendix 3 represents such a scenario where, although it is a pun, Pastis introduces a new definition of tsunami. The word always known to mean a dangerous outpour of the oceanic water is misinterpreted contextually to bring the meaning a situation of massive occurrence. A rhyme is created just like in appendix 5 which employs this word in its new lexicon.

Recursive puns also help in building the linguistic misinterpretation that characterizes the contextualization of language in comics (Summerfelt, Lippman & Hyman, 2010).  Firstly, in appendix 10, Pig reports having been left by a girlfriend with immense sorrow. Goat in his attempt to console him tells him that “she is not the only fish in the lake.” Pig then interprets this literally as shown in the visual and brings along a fish which he presumes as not similar to his girlfriend. In appendix 11, a similar depiction of fish nets (ladies wear) ensues when pig refers to literal fishing nets while Goat visualizes the cloths.  This is a great application of the systematic-functional linguistics that looks at language as a game of functions. When words and phrases are uttered, functional meanings are drawn in the minds of the listener dependent on the context (Heer & Worcester, 2009). However, the multidimensional semiotic system proponents argue that meaning is a choice of the reader or listener of a literary or literal text and therefore misinterpretations are only subjective references of a party involved in the creation of meaning to the presented words (Forceville, 2011). This is even more applicable in comics where meaning is a function of both the visual language and the verbal language and therefore interpretation must merge the aspects (Forceville, Veale, & Feyaerts, 2010: Goggin & Hassler-Forest, 2009). As shown in the two panels, misinterpretations regarding clichés phrases are the mostly depicted. This shows the evolution often associated with language. Although still considered as vital complementary parts of language, clichés and colloquial expressions are often great sources of misinterpretation.

The application of systematic functional linguistics as a source of comical misinterpretation is even clearer in appendix 8 and 11. In the first case, pig reports the death of crows to the police as saying there has been a “murder of crows.” The police officer tries evading what he thinks is a dupe or fooling by correcting Pig that he knows that a group of crows is called a “Murder of crows.”  In appendix 11 the word “figures” is also misinterpreted around its two homophonic definitions. While Pig uses it to mean “figuring out/imagining,” Rat takes it as meaning “numbers.” These are great depictions of how, meanings can be chosen by different people to an extent that distorts communication. It is also worth noting that linguistic research posits that this choice of meaning is important in the development of languages since it informs new semantics and allocation of meaning to words. Khordoc (2001) even takes it further when he says although it results in misinterpretations sometimes, the paradigmatic dimension of language is the mother of other language theories and comics have been greatly instrumental as tools to introduce these changes in the popular culture.


From the findings of this research, puns are important linguistic tools in comics. They are not only used to generate humor in comics but as a depiction of the influence of linguistics to the meaning of words. Most importantly, it has been noted that puns of all types may greatly result in misinterpretation of contemporary language though in a humorous manner. This can result into either distortion of the intended meaning or introduction of new meanings. This is however vital in the eventual development of popular language as misinterpretations results into new meanings of words and phrases and thus the evolution of language. As shown herein theories of linguistics such as functional systematic linguistics, structural linguistics and generative linguistics also support the importance of such misinterpretations as generated by puns in language development. This is actually how comics result in the definition of words and phrases in popular culture.




Interpersonal Communication Portfolio

1.      Overview of Interpersonal Communication 

Figure 1: The transaction model of interpersonal communication (adapted from (Socha, T. J. (2012). The positive side of interpersonal communication. New York: Peter Lang).

While researchers have posited that a holistic definition of interpersonal communication is difficult to provide due to its complexity, up till now, it has been held that interpersonal communication is a process of transacting messages between people with the aim of creating and sustaining shared meaning while building a relationship. This definition embeds three vital components to interpersonal communication namely process, shared meaning and message transaction (Fernández-Amaya, 2012). While holding that interpersonal communication is a process, Floyd, (2011) notes that this communication is ongoing with neither a definite beginning nor end. Perry, Jeffery & Luecke, (2008) supports this by arguing that each particular interpersonal communication draws from past communication experiences and focused on present and future experiences and is ever changing dependent on prevailing cultures and experience. From this it can be noted that any interpersonal communication is irreversible.

Hargie, (2011) notes that communication entails exchanging messages that can either be verbal or non-verbal in a manner that explicitly produces shared meanings and experiences. This stance is supported by the coordinated management of meaning theory that holds that all meaning and responses used in a communication follow constitutive and regulative rules that people use to draw meaning in a shared manner (Konijn, 2008). It is the following of these rules that result in the creation of a shared meaning during an interpersonal communication.  However, it is important to note that humans communicate to achieve at least one of the Maslow’s needs (Fernández-Amaya, 2012).  Socha, (2012) argues that in any conversation each communicator must note that the other only participates in the communication with the personal aim to achieve one of the human needs as stated by Abraham Maslow, although defining which of the seven needs is aimed may be challenging.

Basing on the transactional model, interpersonal communication does not have a definite sender and receiver of the message as held in the earlier models like the linear and interactive models. Instead, interpersonal communication entails reception and sending of messages between the communicating individuals in a simultaneous procession (Daly, 2010). Researchers on the transactional model have noted seven elements of interpersonal communication vital to interpretation of meaning: people involved, message transacted; context; channel used to communicate; Noise in the communication; feedback sent in the response; and the effect of the communication on an individual (Perry, Jeffery & Luecke, 2008). Socha, (2012) notes that time is also an inevitable element of interpersonal communication arguing that since context changes with time and interpersonal communication are irreversible, time determines the interpretation of meaning. This model holds that interpersonal communication entails two people who are after creating a relationship.

In addition, it is supported by the interpersonal theory of constructivism that holds that people make sense of the world in communication through different constructs (Floyd, 2011). These constructs are built over time and used to attach meaning to different forms of communication implying that present communications draw meaning from past communications. Moreover, supporting this model is the relational interaction patterns theory that looks at communication as a method of building relationships (Konijn, 2008). As argued by the transactional model of interpersonal communication, proponents of this have argued that interpersonal communication is inevitable and cannot be avoided. In fact, in most cases evading a communication is often considered as communication in its own right.

It is also important to note that effective interpersonal communication can be hindered or promoted by a variety of factors.   Researchers have categorically divided these factors into personal and environmental factors (Fernández-Amaya, 2012). While discussing environmental factors influencing interpersonal effectiveness, Konijn, (2008) notes that culture difference; noise, technology and authority may hamper or promote communication depending on their use. Personal attributes like body language, attitude, shared language and listening skill are also greatly effectual to communication effectiveness. Difference in viewpoints may also hamper effective communication (Hargie, 2011).

2.      Assessment of the Impact of Interpersonal Communication on Managerial Effectiveness in Hotels

Interpersonal communication has been established as greatly influential to the effectiveness of management especially in the context of hotel management where communication is an inevitable ingredient of business. While some scholars fail to establish obvious and direct links between interpersonal communication and managerial effectiveness, one underpinning implication of the research is that positive interpersonal communication among internal and external stakeholders of an organization, most particularly in the hospitality industry, improves the managerial effectiveness (Jeffrey, 2013). Madera, (2011) argues that a good working relationship with employees necessitates positive and respectful communication among the stakeholders. This is supported by the interpersonal onion theory that states that relationships are built based on the level of intimacy of the parties involved, high levels of intimacy achieved by interpersonal communication are likely to attain good relationship (AbuKhalifeh & Mat Som, 2012). The relationship built provides a positive working environment for easy allocation of tasks and workforce management to achieve the organizational objectives.

Moreover, Woods et al., (2007) argue that communicating organization ideas constructively and positively most particularly in hotels promote proper understanding reducing the chances of occurrence of organization conflicts, and hasten the conflict resolution process in the event that disagreement occurs between the employees. They further state that effective anger management by employees to resolve conflicts can only be achieved through positive communication among the organization’s stakeholders (Woods et al., 2007). In his study of teamwork and hotel organization performance Črnjar, (2012) observed that effective interpersonal communication is a critical factor to achieving a good working team that entails collaboration and sharing of ideas to achieve set objectives. He further posits that carrying out hotel services through teamwork allows for thoughtful expression of opinions and views providing a good environment for the management of the workforce (Baird, 2011).

Some scholars have argued that positive interpersonal communication can only achieve effective management of hotels in compliment with other factors such as employee’s attitude and willingness to work (Mary & Margaret (2008). However, research shows that positive interpersonal communication (entailing constructive, positive and respectful communication) promotes a good relationship between the parties involved and a positive attitude towards achieving the organization’s objectives (Hynes, 2012). A deduction can, therefore, be drawn that positive interpersonal communication promotes a good working relationship and understanding between hotel stakeholders promoting effective management of workforce and services for positive organization outcome.

Employee motivation in hotel management can be achieved through effective communication process developed within the organization. Effective interpersonal skills acquired by the managers maintain an effectual manner of communication of ideas and tasks providing an encouragement to the employees in achieving the organization’s goals (AbuKhalifeh & Mat Som, 2012). Črnjar, (2012) posits that assertive communication skills by hotel managers is important in providing inspiration to hotel employees in their service delivery through the relay of detailed and specific messages. The clear and concise manner with which the assertive managers deliver messages and tasks to employees promotes a clear understanding of the task to be performed motivating them in their work. Moreover, Hynes, (2012) argues that effective interpersonal communication skills are vital in to social interaction, and to the development and maintenance good relationship between the managers and the employees. The relationship developed promotes a suitable working environment that act as a motivation to the employees. According to Jeffrey, (2013) effective interpersonal communication skills allow hotel managers advance in their conversation skills allowing them to resolve organization conflicts. Having a conflict free working environment is a motivation to the employees through the mutual understanding and positive interaction developed (Baker, Huyton & Bradley, 2000). The ability of to attain motivated hotel employees through good working relationship and proper understanding between the employees and the managers, can lead to the inference that effective interpersonal communication skills acquired by hotel managers is likely to influence the motivation of employees in their service provision.

The quality and value of service delivered by hotel employees depends on their understanding of the task to be performed. Effective interpersonal communication skills adopted by the managers in allocation  of the tasks promotes a clear understanding of what is expected of the employees enhancing the quality of the services they deliver (Madera, 2011). According to AbuKhalifeh & Mat Som, (2012) positive employee interactions produced through effective communication motivates the employees enhancing their ability to deliver services that are likely to achieve hotel customers’ satisfaction. Moreover, Baird, (2011) argues that the ability of effective interpersonal communication to achieve a clear and specific relay of messages and information to employees, ensure they perform the tasks as communicated which translates to quality services being obtained. Similar observation is made from interpersonal uncertainty reduction theory that states that effective interpersonal communication skills reduces the uncertainty of employees in the process of service delivery instilling confidence and self-reliance on them that improve the quality of the services they offer to the hotel (Madera, 2011). Based on the arguments advanced a deduction can be made that effective interpersonal communication skills adopted within an organization greatly improve the quality of services delivered by hotel employees.

3.      Conversation Transcripts

3.1.            Conversation 1

(Knock at Simon’s office door)

Simon: Yes!

(With a broad smile, Simon looks at Samantha, Drops the mouse and sits upright on his chair. Samantha looks tired and upset).

Simon: Yes, Samantha. Please, have a seat.

Samantha: Thank you.

Simon: how can I help you? You look tired and upset. What is the matter?

(Samantha sighs heavily and relaxes)

Samantha: I need a Friday off.

Simon: Yes! (He pulls the chair forward and puts on a concerned look)

Samantha: my mother is flying into the town for a quick visit. I haven’t seen her for a long time. It would be fair that I spend some quality time with her. Brendan has accepted to take my place.

Simon: You ought to have said this before the roster was written, Samantha.

Samantha: she just decided to come. I did not know she would be coming.

Simon: Oh! Fine, I understand. (He nods and looks at Samantha even more concerned). While I would be really willing to allow you, I don’t think Brendan can really take your place effectively. You know Friday is a busy day for us and it needs someone who has the ability to achieve. You are the person we can trust with the day, Samantha. Is there nothing you can do to be here?

(Samantha now looks even more annoyed and weak)

Samantha: I have worked here for two years without asking for any time off. Please, Simon this is very important to me. I’ve been doing my best to help you out as much as I can recently. I have been working for 8 weeks straight with only one day off a week, night shifts followed by morning shifts and sometimes split shifts too. I’d really appreciate this favor in return. Then I would be happy putting in hard yards for you.

Simon: Samantha, you have been greatly helpful to this department and I must appreciate that. You have really worked hard to ensure that we meet all our targets and that is greatly commendable. However, since I have reservations with Brendan working on Friday, we can try talking to Janet if she can stand in for you. What do you think?

Samantha: (Sighs with relief) sure. That will be great.

(He calls Janet asking her if she could stand in for Samantha on Friday. Janet agrees on phone)

Simon: She agreed, Samantha. You can have your Friday off.

Samantha: (Smiling) Thank you so much, Simon.

Simon: (Smiling back). You are welcome, Samantha. One thing before you go, when you come back, I will appreciate if you can tell me what has really affected your performance lately it’s important I know.

Samantha: (standing from her seat to leave). I surely will. Thank you.

Simon: Welcome

3.2.            Conversation 2

(Mr. Tomson slumps the front door counter looking tired, disheveled and annoyed)

Samantha: Hi. Reservation? (She looks at Mr. Tomson with smiles)

Mr. Tomson: Yes, My name is Tomson (he leans forward to support himself on the counter).

Samantha: Just hang on as I check, please. (Sounds of mouse clicks are heard as Samantha checks Tomsons reservation in the PMS. She can’t find it initially since she is checking Thomson instead of Tomson. Noting she is taking long, she sighs)

Samantha: (sighing).Just a minute, please. You must be very tired and in need of a quick rest.

Mr. Tomson: Sure, I am waiting.

(Samantha can’t still find the reservation after a second search)

Samantha: (She drops the mouse and looks at Mr Tomson empathetically). I am sorry, sir. I can’t find a reservation under the name Thomson. Did you get a confirmation email?

Tomson: Yes I did. The reservation was made by my assistant over two weeks ago. (Looking more annoyed and disappointed than before). Can you check it again? My name is spelt as T-O-M-S-O-N.

Samantha: (noting that she made a mistake with the spelling). Oh! Mr Tomson, forgive my ignorance I did not intend to take much of your time. I have your reservation.

Mr.Tomson: Good. I need to take a shower and have something to eat. I don’t think I can handle any more delays (He seems a little bit restless now).

Samantha: Could you please give me the credit card for your room security deposit and sign this registration card to help us serve you better.

(Mr. Tomson complies with Sasmantha’s request and she checks him into room 2106, providing him with room keys).

Mr. Tomson: Is this all?

Samantha: Yes, Mr Tomson. (Smiling at him and talking in a soft voice). Sorry for the delays, enjoy your stay.

Mr. Tomson: thank you.

(She calls a room attendant to direct Mr Tomson to his room)