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1. The following materials are about global warming.

1. The following materials are about global warming.
2. Identify the topic of each quote. There are 12 quotes in total, so you should have 12 different topics.
3. Paraphrase each quotein your own word.
4. No Plagiarism!

Notecard #1
Topic:
Quote: Of course, the shift that scientists currently fear–an estimated rise of 12-4[degrees]C over the course of the current century–leaves plenty of room for cold weather. A rise of this magnitude, while inviting havoc via elevated sea levels and more severe droughts, would by no means eliminate blizzards or cold fronts. On the contrary, a warmer climate means more moisture in the air, and it could also involve more radical fluctuations in the jet stream. These changes are likely to translate into the more frequent occurrence of extreme weather, including winter storms–and, ironically, more opportunities for deniers to propagate.
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Notecard #2
Topic:
Quote: Every summer Arctic sea ice melts, and every fall it refreezes. The amount of open water has been steadily increasing for three decades, a percent or two every year–it’s been going at about the pace that the hairline recedes on a middle-aged man. It was worrisome, and scientists said all the summer ice could be gone by 2070 or so, which is an eye blink in geologic time but an eternity in politician time. In late summer of last year, though, the melt turned into a rout-it was like those stories of people whose hair turns gray overnight. An area the size of Colorado was disappearing every week; the Northwest Passage was staying wide open all September, for the first time in history.
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Notecard #3
Topic:
Quote: The EPA estimates that if every household replaced its nine most used lightbulbs with CFLS, we’d save as much in C as if we eliminated 10 million cars. The bad news is, we need to cut about 17 times that much; the good news, according to a recent report by mega consulting firm McKinsey, is that we could trim the nation’s GHG footprint by almost 30 percent over the next 25 years by getting business to invest in efficient cars, appliances, and buildings as well as cleaner energy, with incentives including tax credits, subsidies, offsets, and fewer “regulatory hurdles.”
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Notecard #4
Topic:
Quote: Stresses from high temperatures will be more frequent and more damaging to crops. For example, warmer winters could reduce fruit set on crops like peaches and blueberries. Increased heat stress during the summer, coupled with drought conditions, is predicted to hurt crop productivity, especially if such occurs during flowering and seed set. Although tropical storms can bring needed rain to a region, the destructive forces of the wind and potential for flooding can wreak havoc on agricultural crops.
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Notecard #5
Topic:
Quote: While not specifically mentioned, the impact of climate change on rainfall, temperature and tropical storms could have a tremendous effect on diseases and nematodes. Warmer winters could allow plant-parasitic nematodes a greater number of life-cycles in a year, thus increasing populations. Longer growing seasons could impact the buildup of disease pathogens. Warmer temperatures and increased intensity of tropical storms could lead to earlier introduction of diseases like Asian soybean rust and southern corn rust. High temperatures and drought would increase the risk to aflatoxin in corn and peanuts. Increased flooding following hurricanes would delay timely applications of fungicides and thus make disease management more difficult.
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Notecard #6
Topic:
Quote: Warming trends could increase the length of growing season, impact the number of consecutive hot days in a season, and result in increased temperature variability between years. There is much uncertainty about forecasts for severity of drought, severe storms, and hurricanes. However, it seems that the frequency of major hurricanes will increase in the Atlantic basin.
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Notecard #7
Topic:
Quote: In February 2,600 economists issued a statement concluding that “sound economic analysis shows that there are policy options that would slow climate change without harming American living standards, and these measures may in fact improve U.S. productivity in the long run.” There is precedent for such a win-win situation: between the 1973 Arab oil embargo and 1986, the U.S. economy grew by 35 percent with no overall increased energy use.
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Notecard #8
Topic:
Quote: Some economists dismiss the notion of a free lunch. “The idea that you can stabilize emissions at no net cost reflects a level of technological optimism that is not warranted,” says Henry Jacoby of MIT. How, then, can the Europeans promise such hefty cuts–15 percent below 1990 by 20107 Says Ford Motor Co. scientist John Shiller, “They are just taking the moral high ground,” knowing full well that nothing so extreme will be agreed to in Kyoto. The White House, privately, agrees. But Britain, which is promising a 20 percent cut, will be 8 percent below 1990 by the year 2000, and believes it can go the rest of the way by substituting natural gas for coal (coal produces more carbon dioxide than any other fuel), increasing nuclear power, phasing in renewable energy like wind power, raising gasoline taxes and capturing the waste heat from power plants to heat buildings. British Petroleum, sounding as if Greenpeace had infiltrated the boardroom, decided last May that greenhouse gases pose a serious threat and is now setting targets for greenhouse cuts at its plants. German Chancellor Helmut Kohl pledged a 25 percent cut from 1987 levels by 2005. Germany had gotten halfway there last year by closing high-polluting, inefficient East German factories, installing modern technology in the remaining plants and switching from dirty lignite coal to natural gas for electricity. While German environmental groups doubt that the country will hit the 25 percent target, industry is trying. Mercedes, for instance, plans to have 100,000 cars on the road by 2005 running on fuel cells, which emit no greenhouse gases.
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Notecard #9
Topic:
Quote: Most of the industrialized world is putting the finishing touches on plans to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. For 10 days in December, in Kyoto, Japan, 160 countries will meet to try to turn these plans into an international treaty limiting emissions of the planet-warming gases.
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Notecard #10
Topic:
Quote: Potentially severe climate disruption is a lurking “dragon” that we must now include in our future planning. For instance, we must realign the energy industry if we are to see a reduction in the burning of fossil fuels. If the envoys in Kyoto choose to do so, they can improve the odds of the current climate “gamble.” By agreeing to a legally binding climate treaty protocol with strict targets and timetables, they could produce perhaps the most important risk management strategy of the next century. In fact, dealing with the uncertainties of climate change in the twenty-first century may assume the same overiding importance as has military planning in the twentieth. Governments are spurred to build defense capacity not by the knowledge of certain conflict, but by the risk of war. It’s the same kind of thinking that we use on a personal level, when we purchase car insurance. We know we might never have a car accident, or have only a small accident with minor costs. But, recognizing that we could total the car, or be found liable for a catastrophic injury, we buy the insurance to avoid financial ruin. Diplomats in Kyoto will have the chance to agree on some form of “insurance” too – but in their case the entire planet stands to lose from a “crash.” These envoys will be crafting insurance not just for the citizens of their home countries, but for those without a seat at the bargaining table, including future generations.
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Notecard #11
Topic: Cold Winter
Quote: These changes may occur faster than we will be able to respond. And because both nature and climate are so complex, we may be startled by some unwelcome “surprises.” For instance, climate change could magnify other global problems that stem from a larger human population. Even as average temperatures are rising, we expect to see human population rocketing from 6 billion today to 9 billion within the first half of the next century; ever greater numbers of rural dwellers migrating to urban areas, especially coastal cities; and the use of land rapidly changing – as, for example, in the conversion of forests to farmland. In concert with soil erosion, water and air pollution, and a host of other ills, climate change could push ecosystems past tolerable thresholds. These unhealthy combinations, or “synergisms,” may already be spurring events such as the worldwide decline of various animals, the large-scale growth of toxic algae, and the death of coral reefs. Moreover, the warming we cause may trigger more warming, spinning the climate into an inhospitable state. Climate operates over such a long time scale that adverse consequences may take centuries or millennia to reverse. Other changes, such as the decimation of species, are likely to be irreversible.
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Notecard #12
Topic:
Quote: Nature not only is affected by changes in climate; it also influences climate. The carbon dioxide that warms the atmosphere enhances photosynthesis, promoting plant growth. Plants take up carbon dioxide, so one might expect their heightened growth to curb global warming. This could be an example of a “negative feedback,” in which one change sparks a counteractive response. Indeed, initial laboratory tests of increased carbon levels led scientists to foresee greener forests and more verdant fields. However, labs cannot replicate nature’s complexity. Outside of the lab, warming contributes not only to plant growth but also to pest outbreaks that can kill the plants. When plants die, they can no longer take up carbon dioxide; instead they release it. While the future response of nature to ever greater levels of carbon dioxide cannot be predicted, the fact that concentrations of this gas are now at their highest in at least 160,000 years suggests that human carbon dioxide production has already exceeded nature’s storage capacity.
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